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EPA: Phasedown of Hydrofluorocarbons: Allowance Allocation Methodology for 2024 and Later Years

2023-07-20T05:00:00Z

SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is amending existing regulations to implement certain provisions of the American Innovation and Manufacturing Act. This rule establishes the methodology for allocating hydrofluorocarbon production and consumption allowances for the calendar years of 2024 through 2028. EPA is also amending the consumption baseline to reflect updated data and to make other adjustments based on lessons learned from implementation of the hydrofluorocarbon phasedown program thus far, including to: codify the existing approach of how allowances must be expended for import of regulated substances, revise recordkeeping and reporting requirements, and implement other modifications to the existing regulations.

DATES: This final rule is effective on September 18, 2023, except for amendatory instructions 3 and 13, which are effective October 1, 2024, published in the Federal Register July 20, 2023, page 46836.

View final rule.

§84.3 Definitions.
Definitions of “Batch”, “Berth”, “Certificate of analysis”, “Commonly owned”, “Expend”, “Fire suppressant recycler”, “laboratory testing”, “Majority owned”, “Repackagers”, and “Representative sample”AddedView text
§84.5 Prohibitions relating to regulated substances.
(b)RevisedView text
(d)RevisedView text
(i)RevisedView text
§84.7 Phasedown schedule.
(b)(2)RevisedView text
(b)(3) tableRevisedView text
§84.9 Allocation of calendar-year production allowances.
(a)RevisedView text
(b)-(c)RedesignatedView text
§84.11 Allocation of calendar-year consumption allowances.
(a) introductory textRevisedView text
(b)-(c)RedesignatedView text
§84.17 Availability of additional consumption allowances.
(a)(8)-(9)RevisedView text
(a)(10)-(11)AddedView text
§84.19 Transfers of allowances.
(a)(5)AddedView text
§84.25 Required processes to import regulated substances as feedstocks or for destruction.
(a)(1)(v)RevisedView text
§84.31 Recordkeeping and reporting.
Entire sectionRevisedView text
§84.37 Incorporation by reference.
Entire sectionAddedView text

New Text

§84.5 Prohibitions relating to regulated substances.

* * * *

(b) Import. This paragraph applies starting January 1, 2022.

(1) No person may import bulk regulated substances, either as a single component or a multicomponent substance, except:

(i) If the importer of record possesses at the time they are required to submit reports to EPA pursuant to §84.31(c)(7), and expends at the time of ship berthing for vessel arrivals, border crossing for land arrivals such as trucks, rails, and autos, and first point of terminus in U.S. jurisdiction for arrivals via air, consumption or application-specific allowances in a quantity equal to the exchange-value weighted equivalent of the regulated substances imported, whether present as a single component or a multicomponent blend. The required amount of allowances must be calculated to the tenth, but a minimum expenditure of 0.1 allowances is required for any import of regulated substances;

(ii) After receipt of a non-objection notice for substances for use in a process resulting in their transformation or their destruction in accordance with §84.25(a);

(iii) After receipt of a non-objection notice for used regulated substances imported for destruction in accordance with §84.25(b);

(iv) As a transhipment in accordance with §84.31(c)(3) if all transhipped regulated substance is exported from the United States within six months of its import; or

(v) All imports pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section must be physically accompanied by a certificate of analysis, if the certificate of analysis has not been electronically submitted pursuant to §84.31(c)(7)(xvi).

(2) No person may attempt to land bulk regulated substances on, bring regulated substances into, or introduce regulated substances into, any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States without meeting one of the categories set forth in §84.5(b)(1).

(3) Each person meeting the definition of importer for a particular regulated substance import transaction is jointly and severally liable for a violation of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, unless they can demonstrate that another party who meets the definition of an importer met one of the exceptions set forth in paragraph (b)(1).

(4) Imports authorized under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section may not be in containers designed to hold 100 pounds or less of a regulated substance.

(5) A person issued a non-objection notice for the import of an individual shipment of regulated substances under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) or (iii) of this section may not transfer or confer the right to import.

(6) No person may introduce into U.S. commerce any regulated substance claimed as a transhipment.

(7) Every kilogram of bulk regulated substances imported contrary to this paragraph (b) constitutes a separate violation of this subpart. Import of less than one kilogram of bulk regulated substance contrary to this paragraph (b) constitutes a separate violation of this subpart.

* * * *

(d) Calendar-year allowances. All production, consumption, and application-specific allowances may only be expended for production or import occurring in the calendar year for which the allowances are allocated ( i.e., January 1 through December 31). No person may expend, transfer, or confer a production, consumption, or application-specific allowance after December 31 of the year for which it was issued. Entities may transfer or confer their production, consumption, or application-specific allowances before January 1 of the calendar year for which the allowances were allocated.

* * * * *

(i) Labeling. (1) As of January 1, 2022, no person may sell or distribute, offer for sale or distribution, or import containers containing a regulated substance that lacks a label or other permanent markings stating the common name(s), chemical name(s), or ASHRAE designation of the regulated substance(s) or blend contained within, and the percentages of the regulated substances if a blend. The label or other permanent markings must be:

(i) Durable and printed or otherwise labeled on, or affixed to, the external surface of the bulk regulated substance container;

(ii) Readily visible and legible;

(iii) Able to withstand open weather exposure without a substantial reduction in visibility or legibility;

(iv) Displayed on a background of contrasting color; and

(v) If a container of a regulated substance is contained within a box or other overpack, the exterior packaging must contain legible and visible information of what regulated substance is contained within.

(2) No person other than the importer of record may repackage or relabel regulated substances that were initially unlabeled or mislabeled. In order to repackage the regulated substances, the importer of record must either:

(i) Expend consumption allowances equal to the amount of allowances that would be required if each cylinder were full of HFC–23; or

(ii) Verify the contents with independent laboratory testing results and affix a correct label on the container that matches the lab-verified test results before the date of importation (consistent with the definition at 19 CFR 101.1) of the container.

(3)(i) No person producing, importing, exporting, reclaiming, recycling for fire suppression, or repackaging regulated substances, whether as a single or multicomponent substance, may sell or distribute, or offer for sale or distribution, those regulated substances without first conducting laboratory testing of a representative sample of the regulated substances that they are producing, importing, exporting, reclaiming, recycling for fire suppression, or repackaging to verify that the composition of the regulated substance(s) matches the container labeling using the sampling and testing methodology prescribed in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F for regulated substances offered for sale and distribution as refrigerants and using the following sampling and testing method for regulated substances offered for non-refrigerant uses:

Table 1 to Paragraph Non-Refrigerant Regulated Substance Sampling and Testing Methods
Regulated substanceSampling and testing method
1 Only applicable portions of section 8 as specified here are required. Canisters may be used in place of bags for the purposes of these requirements. A sampling and analysis procedure under section 8.2 which provides for a representative sample is required (while section 8.2.1.5 is likely most appropriate, other procedures may be acceptable). Sections 8.4.1, 8.4.2.1, and 8.4.2.2 are required.
2 “Dry basis” concentrations do not need to be recorded.
3 ASTM D6064–11 (reapproved 2022), Standard Specification for HFC–227ea, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (CF3CHFCF3) (incorporated by reference in §84.37) may be used as an alternative for non-refrigerant regulated substances offered for fire suppression use.
4 ASTM D6231/D6231M–21, Standard Specification for HFC–125 (Pentafluoroethane, C2HF5) (incorporated by reference in §84.37) and ASTM D6541–21 Standard Specification for HFC–236fa, 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoropropane, (CF3CH2CF3), (incorporated by reference in §84.37) reference ASTM D6806 and may be used as an alternative for non-refrigerant regulated substances offered for fire suppression use.
HFC–23, HFC–134, HFC–125, HFC–143a, HFC–41, HFC–152aAppendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F, Sections 1, 2, 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 7, 8; Part 7 of 2008 Appendix C for Analytical Procedures for AHRI Standard 700–2014—Normative, (incorporated by reference in §84.37).3
HFC–134a, HFC–143, HFC–245fa, HFC–32, HFC–152Appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F, Sections 1, 2, 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 7, 8; Part 9 of 2008 Appendix C for Analytical Procedures for AHRI Standard 700–2014—Normative, (incorporated by reference in §84.37).3
HFC–227ea, HFC–236cb, HFC–236ea, HFC–236fa, HFC–245ca, HFC–365mfc, HFC–43–10meeSections 8,1 9, 10, 11, 12,2 and 13 of EPA Method 18 as applicable—appendix A–6 to 40 CFR part 60—Test Methods 16 through 18. Or ASTM D6806–02 (2022), Standard Practice for Analysis of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference in §84.37).4

(ii) No person may sell or distribute, or offer for sale or distribution, regulated substances, whether as a single or multicomponent substance, as a refrigerant (except if recovered from and recycled for use in motor vehicle air conditioning or motor vehicle air conditioning-like appliances in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart B) that do not meet the specifications in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F—Specifications for Refrigerants, or, if not listed therein, appendix A1 to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F. For persons who are producing, importing, reclaiming, recycling for fire suppression, or repackaging regulated substances, the applicable specifications must be verified using laboratory testing and the sampling and testing methodology prescribed in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F.

§84.7 Phasedown schedule.

* * * *

(2) The consumption baseline for regulated substances is 303,887,017 metric tons of exchange value equivalent.

* * * *

Table 2 to Paragraph (b)(3)
YearTotal production (MTEVe)Total consumption (MTEVe)
(i) 2022–2023344,299,157273,498,315
(ii) 2024–2028229,521,263181,522,990
(iii) 2029–2033114,760,63290,761,495
(iv) 2034–203576,507,08860,507,663
(v) 2036 and thereafter57,380,31645,380,747

§84.9 Allocation of calendar-year production allowances.

(a) The relevant agency official will issue, through a separate notification, calendar year 2022 and 2023 production allowances to entities that produced a regulated substance in 2020. The number of production allowances allocated to each eligible entity for 2022-2023 is calculated as follows:

§84.11 Allocation of calendar-year consumption allowances.

(a) The relevant agency official will issue, through a separate notification, calendar years 2022 and 2023 consumption allowances to entities that imported or produced a bulk regulated substance in 2020, unless an individual accommodation is permitted by a relevant Agency official. If multiple entities that imported are related through shared corporate or common ownership or control, the relevant agency official will calculate and issue allowances to a single corporate or common owner. The number of consumption allowances allocated to each eligible entity for 2022-2023 is calculated as follows:

§84.17 Availability of additional consumption allowances.

* * * *

(8) A copy of the bill of lading and the invoice indicating the net quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances shipped and documenting the sale of the regulated substances to the purchaser;

(9) The Harmonized Tariff Schedule codes of the regulated substances exported;

§84.25 Required processes to import regulated substances as feedstocks or for destruction.

* * * *

(v) The U.S. port of entry for the import, the expected date of import, and the vessel transporting the material. If at the time of submitting the petition the entity does not know this information, and the entity receives a non-objection notice for the individual shipment in the petition, the entity is required to notify the relevant Agency official of this information prior to the date of importation (consistent with the definition at 19 CFR 101.1) of the individual shipment into the United States;

§84.31 Recordkeeping and reporting.

(a) Recordkeeping and reporting. Any person who produces, imports, exports, transforms, uses as a process agent, destroys, reclaims, or repackages regulated substances or is receiving application-specific allowances in the six applications listed in subsection (e)(4)(B)(iv) of the AIM Act must comply with the following recordkeeping and reporting requirements:

(1) Reports required by this section must be submitted within 45 days of the end of the applicable reporting period, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Reports, petitions, and any related supporting documents must be submitted electronically in a format specified by EPA.

(3) Records and copies of reports required by this section must be retained for five years.

(4) Quantities of regulated substances must be stated in terms of kilograms unless otherwise specified.

(5) Reports are no longer required if an entity notifies the Administrator that they have permanently ceased production, import, export, destruction, transformation, use as a process agent, reclamation, or packaging of regulated substances, but the entity must continue to comply with all applicable recordkeeping requirements.

(b) Producers. Persons (“producers”) who produce regulated substances must comply with the following recordkeeping and reporting requirements:

(1) One-time report. Within 120 days of January 1, 2022, or within 120 days of the date that a producer first produces a regulated substance, whichever is later, every producer must submit to the Administrator a report describing:

(i) The method by which the producer in practice measures daily quantities of regulated substances produced;

(ii) Conversion factors by which the daily records as currently maintained can be converted into kilograms of regulated substances produced, including any constants or assumptions used in making those calculations (e.g., tank specifications, ambient temperature or pressure, density of the regulated substance);

(iii) Internal accounting procedures for determining plant-wide production;

(iv) The quantity of any fugitive losses accounted for in the production figures;

(v) A list of any coproducts, byproducts, or emissions from the production line that are other regulated substances; ozone-depleting substances listed in 40 CFR part 82, subpart A; or hazardous air pollutants initially identified in section 112 of the Clean Air Act, and as revised through rulemaking and codified in 40 CFR part 63;

(vi) The estimated percent efficiency of the production process for the regulated substance; and

(vii) A description of any processes that use a regulated substance as a process agent. Within 60 days of any change in the measurement procedures or the information specified in the above report, the producer must submit a report specifying the changes to the relevant Agency official.

(2) Reporting—producers. Within 45 days after the end of each quarter, each producer of a regulated substance must provide to the relevant Agency official a report containing the following information for each facility:

(i) The quantity (in kilograms) of production of each regulated substance used in processes resulting in their transformation by the producer; for any regulated substance that is used in processes resulting in their transformation at a facility that differs from the facility of production, but both facilities are owned by the producer, the name, quantity (in kilograms), and recipient facility of each regulated substance; and the quantity (in kilograms) intended for transformation by a second party;

(ii) The quantity (in kilograms) of production of each regulated substance used in processes resulting in their destruction by the producer; for any regulated substance that is used in processes resulting in their destruction at a facility that differs from the facility of production, but both facilities are owned by the producer, the name, quantity (in kilograms), and recipient facility of each regulated substance; and the quantity (in kilograms) intended for destruction by a second party;

(iii) The quantity (in kilograms) of production of each regulated substance used as a process agent by the producer; for any regulated substance that is used as a process agent at a facility that differs from the facility of production, but both facilities are owned by the producer, the name, quantity (in kilograms), and recipient facility of each regulated substance; and the quantity (in kilograms) intended for use as a process agent by a second party;

(iv) The quantity (in exchange value equivalents) of allowances expended for each regulated substance and the quantity (in kilograms) of each regulated substance produced;

(v) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances sold or transferred during the quarter to a person other than the producer for use in processes resulting in their transformation, destruction, or use as a process agent;

(vi) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances produced by the producer that were exported by the producer or by other U.S. companies to a foreign country that will be transformed or destroyed and therefore were produced without expending production or consumption allowances;

(vii) For transformation in the United States or by a person in a foreign country, one copy of a transformation verification from the transformer for the specific regulated substance(s) and a list of additional quantities shipped to that same transformer for the quarter;

(viii) For destruction in the United States or by a person in a foreign country of a regulated substance that was produced without allowances, one copy of a destruction verification for each particular destroyer confirming it destroyed the same regulated substance, and a list of additional quantities shipped to that same destroyer for the quarter;

(ix) A list of the entities conferring application-specific allowances from whom orders were placed, and the quantity (in kilograms) of specific regulated substances produced for those listed applications; and

(x) For the fourth quarter report only, the quantity of each regulated substance held in inventory on December 31.

(3) Recordkeeping—producers. Every producer of a regulated substance must maintain the following records:

(i) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of each regulated substance produced at each facility;

(ii) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances produced for use in processes that result in their transformation, destruction, or as a process agent;

(iii) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances sold for use in processes that result in their transformation, destruction, or as a process agent;

(iv) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances produced by expending conferred application-specific allowances and quantity sold for use in each listed application;

(v) Copies of invoices or receipts documenting sale of regulated substances for use in processes that result in their transformation, destruction, or as a process agent;

(vi) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of each regulated substance used at each facility as feedstocks or destroyed in the manufacture of a regulated substance or in the manufacture of any other substance, and any regulated substance introduced into the production process of the same regulated substance at each facility;

(vii) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of each regulated substance used at each facility as a process agent;

(viii) Dated records identifying the quantity (in kilograms) of each coproduct and byproduct chemical not a regulated substance produced within each facility also producing one or more regulated substances;

(ix) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of raw materials and feedstock chemicals used at each facility for the production of regulated substances;

(x) Dated records of the shipments of each regulated substance produced at each plant;

(xi) Dated records of batch tests of regulated substances packaged for sale or distribution including instrument calibration, sample testing data files, audit trail files, and results summaries of both sample test results and quality control test results that are in a form suitable and readily available for review;

(xii) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances, the date received, and names and addresses of the source of used materials containing regulated substances which are recycled or reclaimed at each plant;

(xiii) Records of the date, the regulated substance, and the estimated quantity of any spill or release of a regulated substance that equals or exceeds 100 pounds;

(xiv) The transformation verification in the case of transformation, or the destruction verification in the case of destruction, showing that the purchaser or recipient of a regulated substance, in the United States or in another foreign country, certifies the intent to either transform or destroy the regulated substance, or sell the regulated substance for transformation or destruction in cases when allowances were not expended; and

(xv) The certifications from application-specific allowance holders stating that the regulated substances were purchased solely for an application listed in §84.5(c)(2) and will not be resold for use in a different application or used in any other manufacturing process.

(4) Additional Requirements: producers of HFC-23.(i) Each producer of HFC-23 must include the following additional information in their one-time report in paragraph (b)(1) of this section:

(A) Information on the capacity to produce the intended chemical on the line on which HFC-23 is produced;

(B) A description of actions taken at the facility to control the generation of HFC-23 and its emissions;

(C) Identification of approved destruction technology and its location intended for use for HFC-23 destruction;

(D) A copy of the destruction removal efficiency report associated with the destruction technology; and

(E) Within 60 days of any change in the information specified in the above report, the producer must submit a report specifying the changes to the relevant Agency official.

(ii) Each producer of HFC-23 must include the following additional information in their fourth quarter report:

(A) Annual facility-level data on HFC-23 (in metric tons) on amounts: Emitted; generated; generated and captured for any purpose; generated and captured for consumptive use; generated and captured for feedstock use in the United States; generated and captured for destruction; used for feedstock without prior capture; and destroyed without prior capture.

(B) [Reserved]

(iii) If captured HFC-23 is destroyed in a subsequent control period, producers must submit records to EPA indicating the HFC-23 has been destroyed in their next quarterly report.

(iv) In developing any required report, each producer of HFC-23 must abide by the following monitoring and quality assurance and control provisions:

(A) To calculate the quantities of HFC-23 generated and captured for any use, generated and captured for destruction, used for feedstock without prior capture, and destroyed without prior capture, facilities shall comply with the monitoring methods and quality assurance and control requirements set forth at 40 CFR 98.414 and the calculation methods set forth at 40 CFR 98.413, except 40 CFR 98.414(p) shall not apply.

(B) To calculate the quantity of HFC-23 emitted, facilities shall comply with the monitoring methods and quality assurance and control requirements set forth at 40 CFR 98.124 and the calculation methods set forth at 40 CFR 98.123.

(5) Agency assumption —For any person who fails to maintain the records required by this paragraph, or to submit the reports required by this paragraph, EPA may assume that the person has produced at full capacity during the period for which records were not kept.

(c) Importers. Persons (“importers”) who import regulated substances must comply with the following recordkeeping and reporting requirements:

(1) Reporting—importers. Within 45 days after the end of each quarter, an importer of record of a regulated substance must submit to the relevant Agency official a report containing the following information:

(i) Summaries of the records required in paragraph (c)(2) of this section for the previous quarter;

(ii) The total quantity (in kilograms) imported of each regulated substance for that quarter;

(iii) The Harmonized Tariff Schedule codes for the regulated substances or blends imported;

(iv) A list of the application-specific allowance holders from whom orders were placed, number of application-specific allowances conferred, and the quantity (in kilograms) of specific regulated substances imported for those listed applications;

(v) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances imported for use in processes resulting in their transformation or destruction;

(vi) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances sold or transferred during that quarter to each person for use in processes resulting in their transformation or destruction;

(vii) The transformation verifications showing that the purchaser or recipient of imported regulated substances intends to transform those substances or destruction verifications showing that the purchaser or recipient intends to destroy the regulated substances;

(viii) Records required under §84.25(b)(5) documenting proof that material imported for destruction was destroyed; and

(ix) For the fourth quarter report only, the quantity of each regulated substance held in inventory on December 31.

(2) Recordkeeping—importers. An importer of a regulated substance must maintain the following records:

(i) The quantity (in kilograms) of each regulated substance imported, either alone or in mixtures, including the percentage of each mixture that consists of a regulated substance;

(ii) The quantity (in kilograms) of used regulated substances imported for destruction under the process described in §84.25(b);

(iii) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances imported for use in processes resulting in their transformation or destruction;

(iv) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances imported and sold for use in processes that result in their transformation or destruction;

(v) The date on which the regulated substances were imported;

(vi) The port of entry through which the regulated substances passed;

(vii) The country from which the imported regulated substances were imported;

(viii) The company that produced the imported regulated substances;

(ix) The Harmonized Tariff Schedule code for the regulated substances imported;

(x) The importer number for the shipment;

(xi) A copy of the bill of lading for the import;

(xii) The invoice for the import;

(xiii) The U.S. Customs entry number;

(xiv) Dated records documenting the sale or transfer of regulated substances for use in processes resulting in their transformation or destruction;

(xv) Copies of transformation verifications or destruction verifications indicating that the regulated substances will be transformed or destroyed;

(xvi) Dated records of the quantity of regulated substances imported for an application listed at §84.5(c)(2);

(xvii) The certifications from application-specific allowance holders stating that the regulated substances were purchased solely for an application listed in §84.5(c)(2) and will not be resold for use in a different application or used in any other manufacturing process;

(xviii) Dated records of batch tests of regulated substances packaged for sale or distribution, including instrument calibration, sample testing data files, audit trail files, and results summaries of both sample test results and quality control test results that are in a form suitable and readily available for review; and

(xix) For any entity subject to an order issued by the Department of Commerce that is receiving allowances for 2022 or 2023, documentation of cash deposit of and final payment of the antidumping and countervailing duty for regulated substances imported.

(3) Transhipments.(i) A person must notify the relevant Agency official of each shipment of a regulated substance that is to be transhipped through the United States. The notification is required at least 30 working days before the shipment is to leave the foreign port of export for importation into the United States as a transhipment, and must contain the following information:

(A) Name, Harmonized Tariff Schedule code, and quantity in kilograms of each regulated substance to be transhipped;

(B) Name and address of the importer, the importer ID number, and the contact person's name, email address, and phone number;

(C) Source country; and

(D) The U.S. port of entry, the expected date of importation, including instrument calibration, sample testing data files, audit trail files, and results summaries of both sample test results and quality control test results that are in a form suitable and readily available for review, and the vessel transporting the material. If at the time of submitting the petition the importer does not know this information, the importer is required to notify the relevant Agency official of this information prior to the entry of each shipment into the United States.

(ii) The person in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section must notify the relevant Agency official of each shipment of a regulated substance that has been transhipped when it is exported from the United States. The notification is required at least 10 working days after the shipment is exported from the United States, and must contain the following information:

(A) Name, Harmonized Tariff Schedule code, and quantity in kilograms of each regulated substance to be transhipped;

(B) Name and address of the importer, the importer ID number, and the contact person's name, email address, and phone number; and

(C) Date of departure and name of vessel.

(iii) Any person who tranships a regulated substance must maintain records that indicate:

(A) That the regulated substance shipment originated in a foreign country;

(B) That the regulated substance shipment is destined for another foreign country; and

(C) That the regulated substance shipment will not enter U.S. commerce within the United States.

(4) Additional recordkeeping requirements—importers of used regulated substances for destruction. A person receiving a non-objection notice from the relevant Agency official to import used regulated substances for destruction must maintain the following records:

(i) A copy of the petition to import for destruction;

(ii) The EPA non-objection notice;

(iii) A copy of the export license, export license application, or official communication from the appropriate government agency in the country of export;

(iv) An English translation of the document in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section;

(v) U.S. Customs entry documents for the import that must include the Harmonized Tariff Schedule codes;

(vi) The date, amount, and name of the regulated substances sent for destruction, per shipment;

(vii) An invoice from the destruction facility verifying the shipment was received; and

(viii) Records from the destruction facility indicating that the substance has been destroyed.

(5) Recordkeeping requirements—aggregators. A person aggregating a regulated substance prior to destruction, regardless of whether the person is an importer, must:

(i) Maintain transactional records that include the name and address of the entity from whom they received the regulated substance imported for destruction;

(ii) Maintain transactional records that include the name and address of the entity to whom they sent the regulated substance imported for destruction;

(iii) Maintain records that include the date and quantity of the imported regulated substance received for destruction;

(iv) Maintain records that include the date and quantity of the imported regulated substance sent for destruction; and

(v) If the person is the final aggregator of such a regulated substance before the material is destroyed, maintain a copy of records indicating that the substance has been destroyed.

(6) Recordkeeping requirements—vessel owners/operators. A person offloading regulated substances recovered from equipment aboard a marine vessel, aircraft, or other aerospace vehicle while in a U.S. port must maintain records of the company name, vessel name or identifier, location of the appliance, date of recovery, person doing the recovery, the amount of regulated substances recovered and type of refrigerant recovered for each servicing event, and the amount of each regulated substance or blend of regulated substances offloaded and the date it was offloaded.

(7) Additional reporting for importers of record. The importer of record must include the following no later than 10 days if arriving by marine vessel or 5 days for non-marine vessel prior to the date of importation (consistent with the definition at 19 CFR 101.1), via a U.S. Customs and Border Protection-authorized electronic data interchange system, such as the Automated Broker Interface (authorized agents may permissibly file on behalf of an importer of record):

(i) Cargo Description;

(ii) Net weight;

(iii) Container number(s) associated with the shipment, as applicable;

(iv) Gross Weight;

(v) Weight Unit of Measure;

(vi) Port of Entry;

(vii) Scheduled Entry Date;

(viii) Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) code;

(ix) Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) Description;

(x) Origin Country;

(xi) Importer of Record Name and Associated Number;

(xii) Consignee Entity Name;

(xiii) CAS Number(s) of the regulated substance(s) imported and, for regulated substances that are in a mixture, either the ASHRAE numerical designation of the refrigerant or the percentage of the mixture containing each regulated substance;

(xiv) If importing regulated substances for transformation or destruction, a copy of the non-objection notice issued consistent with §84.25;

(xv) If importing regulated substances as a transhipment, a copy of the confirmation documenting the entity reported the transhipment consistent with paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section; and

(xvi) A certificate of analysis, if the certificate of analysis is not physically accompanying the shipment pursuant to §84.5(b)(1)(v)).

(8) One-time report—payment of antidumping and countervailing duties. By November 30, 2021, any entity importing regulated substances subject to an antidumping and countervailing duty order issued by the Department of Commerce that is receiving allowances for 2022 or 2023 must provide documentation of cash deposit of and final payment of such duties for the regulated substances imported from January 1, 2017, through May 19, 2021, or provide evidence that those imports were not subject to such duties for those years.

(9) Importer of record information. (i) Any entity that falls under any of the following criteria must submit the information outlined in paragraph (c)(9)(ii) of this section:

(A) That is issued allowances by EPA and anticipates being the importer of record for a shipment of regulated substances; or

(B) That is not issued allowances by EPA, but receives transferred or conferred allowances.

(ii) The following information must be submitted to EPA by the date specified under paragraph (c)(9)(iii) of this section:

(A) Names of all subsidiaries;

(B) Entities commonly owned or majority owned by the same person or persons;

(C) Alternative names under which the entity does business;

(D) Importer of record numbers; and

(E) If providing information under paragraph (c)(9)(ii) (A), (B), or (C) of this section:

( 1 ) The relationship between the allowance holder and each subsidiary and each entity commonly owned or majority owned by the same person or persons, including alternative names under which each listed entity does business; and

( 2 ) If applicable, the identity of owners and their respective percentage of ownership.

(iii) The information outlined in paragraph (c)(9)(ii) of this section must be submitted each year by:

(A) November 15 after being issued allowances for an entity that falls under paragraph (c)(9)(i)(A) of this section; or

(B) within 15 calendar days of receiving a non-objection notice for conferral of application-specific allowances pursuant to §84.13(h) or for inter-company transfer of consumption allowances pursuant to §84.19(a) for an entity that falls under paragraph (c)(9)(i)(B) of this section.

(iv) If changes occur to the information previously provided to the Agency, such changes must be transmitted to the Agency at least 21 days prior to expenditure of allowances pursuant to §84.5(b)(1)(i).

(d) Exporters. Persons (“exporters”) who export regulated substances must comply with the following reporting requirements:

(1) Reporting requirements—exporters. Within 45 days after the end of each quarter, each exporter of a regulated substance must submit to the relevant Agency official a report containing the following information if such information was not already reported under paragraph (b)(2) of this section:

(i) The names and addresses of the exporter and the recipient of the exports;

(ii) The exporter's Employer Identification Number;

(iii) The quantity of each specific regulated substance exported, including the quantity of regulated substance that is used, reclaimed, or recycled;

(iv) The date on which, and the port from which, the regulated substances were exported from the United States or its territories;

(v) The country to which the regulated substances were exported;

(vi) The Harmonized Tariff Schedule codes for the regulated substances shipped;

(vii) For persons exporting for transformation or destruction of the regulated substance, the invoice or sales agreement containing language similar to the transformation verifications that importers use, or destruction verifications showing that the purchaser or recipient intends to destroy the regulated substances; and

(viii) For the fourth quarter report only, the quantity of each regulated substance held in inventory on December 31.

(2) Recordkeeping. (i) Exporters must maintain dated records of batch tests of regulated substances packaged for sale or distribution, including instrument calibration, sample testing data files, audit trail files, and results summaries of both sample test results and quality control test results that are in a form suitable and readily available for review.

(3) Used regulated substances. Any exporter of used regulated substances must indicate on the bill of lading or invoice that the regulated substance is used.

(e) Second-party transformation and destruction. Any person who transforms or destroys regulated substances produced or imported by another person must comply with the following recordkeeping and reporting requirements:

(1) Reporting—second-party transformation and destruction. Any person who transforms or destroys regulated substances produced or imported by another person must report the following for each facility:

(i) The names and quantities (in kilograms) of the regulated substances transformed for each calendar year within 45 days after the end of that year; and

(ii) The names and quantities (in kilograms) of the regulated substances destroyed for each calendar year within 45 days after the end of that year.

(2) Recordkeeping—second-party transformation and destruction. Any person who transforms or destroys regulated substances produced or imported by another person must maintain the following:

(i) Copies of the invoices or receipts documenting the sale or transfer of the regulated substances to the person;

(ii) Records identifying the producer or importer of the regulated substances received by the person;

(iii) Dated records of inventories of regulated substances at each plant on the first day of each quarter;

(iv) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of each regulated substance transformed or destroyed;

(v) In the case where regulated substances were purchased or transferred for transformation purposes, a copy of the person's transformation verification;

(vi) Dated records of the names, commercial use, and quantities (in kilograms) of the resulting chemical(s) when the regulated substances are transformed;

(vii) Dated records of shipments to purchasers of the resulting chemical(s) when the regulated substances are transformed; and

(viii) In the case where regulated substances were purchased or transferred for destruction purposes, a copy of the person's destruction verification.

(3) Transformation verifications. Any person who purchases regulated substances for purposes of transformation must provide the producer or importer of the regulated substances with a transformation verification that the regulated substances are to be used in processes that result in their transformation. The verification can only be valid for one year. The transformation verification shall include the following:

(i) Identity and address of the person intending to transform the regulated substances;

(ii) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances intended for transformation;

(iii) Identity of shipments by purchase order number(s), purchaser account number(s), location(s), or other means of identification;

(iv) Period of time over which the person intends to transform the regulated substances; and

(v) Signature and title of the verifying person.

(4) Destruction verifications. Any person who purchases or receives regulated substances in processes that result in their destruction shall provide the producer or importer of the regulated substances with a destruction verification that the regulated substances are to be used in processes that result in their destruction. The verification can only be valid for up to 120 days. The destruction verification shall include the following:

(i) Identity and address of the person intending to destroy regulated substances;

(ii) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances intended for destruction;

(iii) Identity of shipments by purchase order number(s), purchaser account number(s), location(s), or other means of identification;

(iv) The destruction efficiency at which such substances will be destroyed;

(v) Period of time over which the person intends to destroy regulated substances; and

(vi) Signature and title of the verifying person.

(5) Transformation reporting—one-time report. Within 120 days of January 1, 2022, or within 120 days of the date that an entity first transforms a regulated substance, whichever is later, any person who transforms a regulated substance must provide EPA with a one-time report containing the following information:

(i) A description of the transformation use;

(ii) A description of all technologies and actions taken to minimize emissions of regulated substances;

(iii) The name of the product manufactured in the process;

(iv) A list of any coproducts, byproducts, or emissions from the line on which the regulated substance is to be transformed that are other regulated substances; ozone-depleting substances listed in 40 CFR part 82, subpart A; or hazardous air pollutants initially identified in section 112 of the Clean Air Act, and as revised through rulemaking and codified in 40 CFR part 63;

(v) The estimated annual fugitive emissions by chemical associated with the transformation process;

(vi) The anticipated ratio of regulated substance used for transformation to the amount of end product manufactured; and

(vii) A mass balance equation of the transformation reaction.

(f) All destruction facilities(1) Destruction—one-time report. Within 120 days of January 1, 2022, or within 120 days of the date that an entity first destroys a regulated substance, whichever is later, every person who destroys regulated substances, whether in a process for destruction or for disposal of a used substance, shall provide EPA with a report containing the following information:

(i) The destruction unit's destruction efficiency;

(ii) The methods used to determine destruction efficiency;

(iii) The methods used to record the volume destroyed;

(iv) The name of other relevant federal or state regulations that may apply to the destruction process; and

(v) Any changes to the information in this paragraph must be reflected in a revision to be submitted to EPA within 60 days of the change(s).

(2) Proof of destruction. Any person who destroys used regulated substances for disposal of that substance, shall provide the importer or aggregator with a record indicating the substance was destroyed within 30 days of the date of destruction.

(g) Process agents(1) Reporting—one-time report. Within 120 days of January 1, 2022, or within 120 days of the date that an entity first uses a regulated substance as a process agent, whichever is later, any person who uses a regulated substance as a process agent must provide EPA a one-time report containing the following information:

(i) A description of the process agent use that includes details of the percentages of process agent retained within the process, recovered after the process, and emitted or entrained in the final product;

(ii) A description of all technologies and actions taken to minimize emissions of regulated substances;

(iii) The name of the product and byproducts manufactured in the process; and

(iv) The anticipated ratio of process agent emissions to end product manufactured.

(2) Annual report. Any person who uses a regulated substance as a process agent must provide an annual report containing the following information:

(i) Contact information including email address and phone number for a primary and alternate contact person;

(ii) The amount of regulated substance used as a process agent;

(iii) The amount of product and the amount of byproducts manufactured (including amounts eventually destroyed or used as feedstock);

(iv) The stack point source emissions; and

(v) A description of any regulated substance emission reduction actions planned or currently under investigation.

(h) Holders of application-specific allowances.

(1) Reporting. Any person allocated application-specific allowances, except for persons receiving application-specific allowances for mission-critical military end uses, must submit to the relevant Agency official a report by July 31 (covering prior activity from January 1 through June 30) and January 31 (covering prior activity from July 1 through December 31) of each year. The report shall contain the following information:

(i) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances acquired through conferring allowances during the previous six months;

(ii) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances acquired through expending allowances and directly imported during the previous six months;

(iii) The quantity (in kilograms) of regulated substances purchased for application-specific use without expending application-specific allowances during the previous six months (i.e., from the open market);

(iv) The quantity (in kilograms) of inventory on the last day of the previous six-month period of each regulated substance for application-specific use held by the reporting company or held under contract by another company for the reporting company's use;

(v) The quantity (in kilograms) of each regulated substance for application-specific use that was destroyed or recycled during the previous six months;

(vi) The names and contact information of each company to which application-specific allowances were conferred, and the quantity of allowances conferred from each company, and the quantity of regulated substances received from each company;

(vii) In the July 31 report only, a description of plans to transition application-specific use of regulated substances to regulated substances with a lower exchange value or alternatives to regulated substances;

(viii) In the July 31 report only, if a company is requesting additional allowances due to one or more of the circumstances listed in §84.13(b)(1), the report must include a projection of the monthly quantity of additional regulated substances needed for application-specific use(s) by month in the next calendar year and a detailed explanation, including relevant supporting documentation to justify the additional need; and

(ix) In the July 31 report only, if a company is contracting out the manufacturing of defense sprays or metered dose inhalers, or paying another person (whether it is in cash, credit, goods, or services) to perform the servicing of onboard aerospace fire suppression, the name, address, and email address for a representative of the person doing the manufacturing or servicing, and clarification on whether the responses in paragraph (h)(1) of this section apply to the company that is allocated application-specific allowances or the company receiving the contract for manufacturing and/or servicing using application-specific allowances.

(2) New Requests. Persons requesting application-specific allowances for the first time must submit to EPA the following information:

(i) A description of the use of regulated substances and a detailed explanation of how the use is an application-specific use listed in §84.13(a);

(ii) Total quantity (in kilograms) of all regulated substances acquired for application-specific use in the previous three years, including a copy of the sales records, invoices, or other records documenting that quantity;

(iii) The name of the entity or entities supplying regulated substances for application-specific use and contact information for those suppliers;

(iv) The quantities (in kilograms) of regulated substances held in inventory for application-specific use as of June 30 of the prior year and June 30 in the current year;

(v) A description of plans to transition to regulated substances with a lower exchange value or alternatives to regulated substances;

(vi) If a company is requesting additional allowances due to one or more of the circumstances listed in §84.13(b)(1), the report must include a projection of the monthly quantity of additional regulated substances needed by month in the next calendar year and a detailed explanation, including relevant supporting documentation to justify the additional need; and

(vii) If a company is contracting out the manufacturing of defense sprays or metered dose inhalers, or contracting out the servicing of onboard aerospace fire suppression, the name, address, and email address for a representative of the person doing the manufacturing or servicing, and clarification on whether the responses in paragraph (h)(2) of this section apply to the company that is requesting application-specific allowances or the company receiving the contract for manufacturing and/or servicing using application-specific allowances.

(3) Report for Application-specific Allowances for Mission-critical Military End Use. The Department of Defense must provide a report to EPA biannually by July 31 (covering prior activity from January 1 through June 30) and January 31 (covering prior activity from July 1 through December 31) of each year contains the following information:

(i) The quantity (in kilograms) of each regulated substance acquired for application-specific use by conferring application-specific allowances;

(ii) The quantity of inventory on June 30 of each regulated substance for application-specific use held by the Department of Defense or held under contract by another company for use by the Department of Defense;

(iii) The quantity of each regulated substance requested for mission-critical military end uses in the next calendar year;

(iv) The broad sectors of use covered by current mission-critical military end uses in the next calendar year; and

(v) A description of plans to transition application-specific use(s) to regulated substances with a lower exchange value or alternatives to regulated substances, including not-in-kind substitutes.

(4) Conferral of allowances. Entities who confer application-specific allowances, except for the conferral of allowances for mission-critical military end uses, must submit the following information about each conferral to the relevant Agency official prior to conferring allowances:

(i) The identities and addresses of the conferrer and the conferee;

(ii) The names, telephone numbers, and email addresses of contact persons for the conferrer and the conferee;

(iii) The specific application for which application-specific allowances are to be conferred;

(iv) The quantity (in MTEVe) of application-specific allowances being conferred;

(v) The amount of unexpended application-specific allowances of the type and for the year being conferred that the conferrer holds under authority of this subpart as of the date the claim is submitted to EPA; and

(vi) A certification from the conferrer and the conferee stating that the regulated substances being acquired, produced, or imported are solely for an application listed in §84.5(c)(2) and will not be resold for use in a different application or used in any other manufacturing process.

(5) Confirmation of conferral. If the conferrer has sufficient application-specific allowances for the conferral, the conferral will occur and the relevant Agency official will issue a confirmation notice to both the conferrer and conferee documenting the conferral occurred. The relevant agency official will reduce the conferrer's balance of unexpended allowances by the quantity conferred. However, if EPA ultimately finds that the conferrer did not have sufficient unexpended allowances to cover the conferral or that the regulated substances produced or imported with conferred allowances are used for anything other than the specific application identified in the conferee's submittal and for the application those allowances were allocated for, the conferrer and conferee will be liable for any violations of the regulations of this subpart that occur as a result of, or in conjunction with, the improper conferral.

(6) Recordkeeping. Entities who receive via allocation, transfer, or conferral of application-specific allowances, except for mission-critical military end uses, must maintain the following records for five years:

(i) Records necessary to develop the biannual reports;

(ii) A copy of certifications provided to entities when conferring and transferring allowances for application-specific use;

(iii) A copy of confirmation notices when conferring allowances for application-specific use;

(iv) A copy of the annual submission requesting application-specific allowances;

(v) Invoices and order records related to the purchase of regulated substances;

(vi) Records related to the transfer and conferral of application-specific allowances to other entities; and

(vii) Records documenting how regulated substances acquired with application-specific allowances were used.

(7) Recordkeeping—Mission-Critical Military End Uses. The Department of Defense must maintain the following records:

(i) Records necessary to develop the annual report;

(ii) A copy of certifications provided to entities when conferring allowances for application-specific use;

(iii) Invoices and order records related to the purchase of regulated substances;

(iv) Records documenting the conferral(s) of application-specific allowances to other entities up to and including the producer and or importer of the chemical;

(v) Records documenting the transfer of regulated substances to an agent or unit of the Department of Defense where the regulated substance will be used for mission-critical applications; and

(vi) Copies of current and historical plans prescribed by the Office of the Secretary of Defense documenting internal Department of Defense monitoring and review procedures for accuracy.

(i) Reclaimers. Persons (“reclaimers”) who reclaim regulated substances must comply with the following recordkeeping and reporting requirements:

(1) One-time report. By February 14, 2022, any person who reclaims a regulated substance must provide a one-time report containing the following information:

(i) The quantity of each regulated substance held in inventory as of December 31, 2021, broken out by whether the regulated substance is recovered, reclaimed, and virgin;

(ii) The name of the laboratory that conducts batch testing and a signed statement from that laboratory confirming there is an ongoing business relationship with the reclaimer;

(iii) The number of batches tested for each regulated substance or blend containing a regulated substance in the prior year; and

(iv) The number of batches that did not meet the specifications in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F in the prior year.

(2) Quarterly Reporting. Within 45 days after the end of each quarter, each reclaimer of a regulated substance must submit to the relevant Agency official a report containing the quantity of material (the combined mass of regulated substance and contaminants) by regulated substance sent to them for reclamation, the total mass of each regulated substance, and the total mass of waste products.

(3) Annual Reporting. Within 45 days after the end of the fourth quarter, each reclaimer of a regulated substance must submit to the relevant Agency official a report containing the quantity of each regulated substance held in inventory onsite as of December 31 broken out by whether the regulated substance is recovered, reclaimed, and virgin.

(4) Recordkeeping.(i) Reclaimers must maintain records, by batch, of the results of the analysis conducted to verify that reclaimed regulated substance meets the necessary specifications in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F (based on AHRI Standard 700–2016), including instrument calibration, sample testing data files, audit trail files, and results summaries of both sample test results and quality control test results that are in a form suitable and readily available for review. Such records must be maintained for five years.

(ii) Reclaimers must maintain records of the names and addresses of persons sending them material for reclamation and the quantity of the material (the combined mass of regulated substance and contaminants) by regulated substance sent to them for reclamation. Such records must be maintained on a transactional basis for five years.

(j) Fire suppressant recycling. Persons (“recycler”) who recycle regulated substances used as a fire suppressant must comply with the following recordkeeping and reporting requirements:

(1) Quarterly Reporting. Within 45 days after the end of each quarter, each recycler of a regulated substance used as a fire suppressant must submit to the relevant Agency official a report containing the quantity of material (the combined mass of regulated substance and contaminants) by regulated substance sent to them for recycling, the total mass of each regulated substance recycled, and the total mass of waste products.

(2) Annual Reporting. Within 45 days after the end of the fourth quarter, each recycler of a regulated substance used as a fire suppressant must submit to the relevant Agency official a report containing the quantity of each regulated substance held in inventory onsite broken out by recovered, recycled, and virgin.

(3) Recordkeeping. (i) Recyclers must maintain records of the names and addresses of persons sending them material for recycling and the quantity of the material (the combined mass of regulated substance and contaminants) by regulated substance sent to them for recycling. Such records must be maintained on a transactional basis for five years.

(ii) Recyclers must maintain dated records of batch tests of regulated substances packaged for sale or distribution, including instrument calibration, sample testing data files, audit trail files, and results summaries of both sample test results and quality control test results that are in a form suitable and readily available for review.

(k) Repackagers. Persons who transfer regulated substances, either alone or in a blend from one container to another container prior to sale or distribution or offer for sale or distribution must comply with the following recordkeeping requirements:

(1) Recordkeeping. Repackagers must maintain dated records of batch tests of regulated substances packaged for sale or distribution, including instrument calibration, sample testing data files, audit trail files, and results summaries of both sample test results and quality control test results that are in a form suitable and readily available for review.

(2) [Reserved]

(l) Treatment of Data submitted under 40 CFR part 84.(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (i) of this section, 40 CFR 2.201 through 2.215 and 2.301 do not apply to data submitted under this part that EPA has determined through rulemaking to be either of the following:

(i) Emission data, as defined in 40 CFR 2.301(a)(2), determined in accordance with section 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act; or

(ii) Data not otherwise entitled to confidential treatment.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (k)(4) of this section, 40 CFR 2.201 through 2.208 and 2.301(c) and (d) do not apply to data submitted under this part that EPA has determined through rulemaking to be entitled to confidential treatment. EPA shall treat that information as confidential in accordance with the provisions of 40 CFR 2.211, subject to paragraph (h)(4) of this section and 40 CFR 2.209.

(3) Upon receiving a request under 5 U.S.C. 552 for data submitted under this part that EPA has determined through rulemaking to be entitled to confidential treatment, the relevant Agency official shall furnish the requestor a notice that the information has been determined to be entitled to confidential treatment and that the request is therefore denied. The notice shall include or cite to the appropriate EPA determination.

(4) A determination made through rulemaking that information submitted under this part is entitled to confidential treatment shall continue in effect unless, subsequent to the confidentiality determination through rulemaking, EPA takes one of the following actions:

(i) EPA determines through a subsequent rulemaking that the information is emission data or data not otherwise entitled to confidential treatment; or

(ii) The Office of General Counsel issues a final determination, based on the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4), stating that the information is no longer entitled to confidential treatment because of change in the applicable law or newly discovered or changed facts. Prior to making such final determination, EPA shall afford the business an opportunity to submit comments on pertinent issues in the manner described by 40 CFR 2.204(e) and 2.205(b). If, after consideration of any timely comments submitted by the business, the Office of General Counsel makes a revised final determination that the information is not entitled to confidential treatment, the relevant agency official will notify the business in accordance with the procedures described in 40 CFR 2.205(f)(2).

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Most Recent Highlights In Environmental

2021-12-27T06:00:00Z

86 FR 73131 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) for Public Water Systems and Announcement of Public Meetings

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 141

[EPA-HQ-OW-2020-0530; FRL-6791-03-OW]

RIN 2040-AF89

Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) for Public Water Systems and Announcement of Public Meetings

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Final rule and notice of public meetings.

SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is finalizing a Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) rule that requires certain public water systems (PWSs) to collect national occurrence data for 29 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and lithium. Subject to the availability of appropriations, EPA will include all systems serving 3,300 or more people and a representative sample of 800 systems serving 25 to 3,299 people. If EPA does not receive the appropriations needed for monitoring all of these systems in a given year, EPA will reduce the number of systems serving 25 to 10,000 people that will be asked to perform monitoring. This final rule is a key action to ensure science-based decision-making and prioritize protection of disadvantaged communities in accordance with EPA's PFAS Strategic Roadmap. EPA is also announcing plans for public webinars to discuss implementation of the fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5).

DATES: This final rule is effective on January 26, 2022. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this final rule is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of January 26, 2022.

ADDRESSES: EPA has established a docket for this action under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2020-0530. All documents in the docket are listed on the https://www.regulations.gov website. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available electronically through https://www.regulations.gov.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brenda D. Bowden, Standards and Risk Management Division (SRMD), Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) (MS 140), Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268; telephone number: (513) 569-7961; email address: bowden.brenda@epa.gov; or Melissa Simic, SRMD, OGWDW (MS 140), Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268; telephone number: (513) 569-7864; email address: simic.melissa@epa.gov. For general information, visit the Ground Water and Drinking Water web page at: https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Table of Contents

I. Summary Information

A. Purpose of the Regulatory Action

1. What action is EPA taking?

2. Does this action apply to me?

3. What is EPA's authority for taking this action?

4. What is the applicability date?

B. Summary of the Regulatory Action

C. Economic Analysis

1. What is the estimated cost of this action?

2. What are the benefits of this action?

II. Public Participation

A. What meetings have been held in preparation for UCMR 5?

B. How do I participate in the upcoming meetings?

1. Meeting Participation

2. Meeting Materials

III. General Information

A. How are CCL, UCMR, Regulatory Determination process, and NCOD interrelated?

B. What are the Consumer Confidence Reporting and Public Notice Reporting requirements for public water systems that are subject to UCMR?

C. What is the UCMR 5 timeline?

D. What is the role of “States” in UCMR?

E. How did EPA consider Children's Environmental Health?

F. How did EPA address Environmental Justice?

G. How did EPA coordinate with Indian Tribal Governments?

H. How are laboratories approved for UCMR 5 analyses?

1. Request To Participate

2. Registration

3. Application Package

4. EPA's Review of Application Package

5. Proficiency Testing

6. Written EPA Approval

I. What documents are being incorporated by reference?

1. Methods From the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2. Alternative Methods From American Public Health Association—Standard Methods (SM)

3. Methods From ASTM International

IV. Description of Final Rule and Summary of Responses to Public Comments

A. What contaminants must be monitored under UCMR 5?

1. This Final Rule

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

a. Aggregate PFAS Measure

b. Legionella Pneumophila

c. Haloacetonitriles

d. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

B. What is the UCMR 5 sampling design?

1. This Final Rule

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

C. What is the sampling frequency and timing?

1. This Final Rule

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

D. Where are the sampling locations and what is representative monitoring?

1. This Final Rule

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

E. How long do laboratories and PWSs have to report data?

1. This Final Rule

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

F. What are the reporting requirements for UCMR 5?

1. This Final Rule

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

a. Data Elements

b. Reporting State Data

G. What are the UCMR 5 Minimum Reporting Levels (MRLs) and how were they determined?

1. This Final Rule

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

H. What are the requirements for laboratory analysis of field reagent blank samples?

1. This Final Rule

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

I. How will EPA support risk communication for UCMR 5 results?

V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review and Executive Order 13563: Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review

B. Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA)

C. Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA)

D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA)

E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism

F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments

G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks

H. Executive Order 13211: Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution or Use

I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA)

J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

K. Congressional Review Act (CRA)

VI. References

Abbreviations and Acronyms

μg/L Microgram per Liter

11Cl-PF3OUdS 11-chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic Acid

4:2 FTS 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorohexane Sulfonic Acid

6:2 FTS 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid

8:2 FTS 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecane Sulfonic Acid

9Cl-PF3ONS 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanone-1-sulfonic Acid

ADONA 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoic Acid

AES Atomic Emission Spectrometry

ASDWA Association of State Drinking Water Administrators

ASTM ASTM International

AWIA America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018

CASRN Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number

CBI Confidential Business Information

CCL Contaminant Candidate List

CCR Consumer Confidence Report

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CRA Congressional Review Act

CWS Community Water System

DBP Disinfection Byproduct

DWSRF Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency

EPTDS Entry Point to the Distribution System

FR Federal Register

FRB Field Reagent Blank

GW Ground Water

GWRMP Ground Water Representative Monitoring Plan

HFPO-DA Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Dimer Acid (GenX)

HRL Health Reference Level

ICP Inductively Coupled Plasma

ICR Information Collection Request

IDC Initial Demonstration of Capability

LCMRL Lowest Concentration Minimum Reporting Level

LC/MS/MS Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

MDBP Microbial and Disinfection Byproduct

MRL Minimum Reporting Level

NAICS North American Industry Classification System

NCOD National Contaminant Occurrence Database

NDAA National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020

NEtFOSAA N-ethyl Perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic Acid

NFDHA Nonafluoro‐3,6‐dioxaheptanoic Acid

ng/L Nanogram per Liter

NMeFOSAA N-methyl Perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic Acid

NPDWR National Primary Drinking Water Regulation

NTNCWS Non-transient Non-community Water System

NTTAA National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act

NTWC National Tribal Water Council

OGWDW Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water

OMB Office of Management and Budget

PFAS Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances

PFBA Perfluorobutanoic Acid

PFBS Perfluorobutanesulfonic Acid

PFDA Perfluorodecanoic Acid

PFDoA Perfluorododecanoic Acid

PFEESA Perfluoro (2‐ethoxyethane) Sulfonic Acid

PFHpA Perfluoroheptanoic Acid

PFHpS Perfluoroheptanesulfonic Acid

PFHxA Perfluorohexanoic Acid

PFHxS Perfluorohexanesulfonic Acid

PFMBA Perfluoro‐4‐methoxybutanoic Acid

PFMPA Perfluoro‐3‐methoxypropanoic Acid

PFNA Perfluorononanoic Acid

PFOA Perfluorooctanoic Acid

PFOS Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid

PFPeA Perfluoropentanoic Acid

PFPeS Perfluoropentanesulfonic Acid

PFTA Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid

PFTrDA Perfluorotridecanoic Acid

PFUnA Perfluoroundecanoic Acid

PN Public Notice

PRA Paperwork Reduction Act

PT Proficiency Testing

PWS Public Water System

QC Quality Control

RFA Regulatory Flexibility Act

SBA Small Business Administration

SBREFA Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act

SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act

SDWARS Safe Drinking Water Accession and Review System

SDWIS/Fed Safe Drinking Water Information System Federal Reporting Services

SM Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

SOP Standard Operating Procedure

SPE Solid Phase Extraction

SRMD Standards and Risk Management Division

SW Surface Water

SWTR Surface Water Treatment Rule

TNCWS Transient Non-community Water System

TOF Total Organic Fluorine

TOP Total Oxidizable Precursors

UCMR Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule

UMRA Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995

U.S. United States

USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency

I. Summary Information

A. Purpose of the Regulatory Action

1. What action is EPA taking?

This final rule requires certain public water systems (PWSs), described in section I.A.2 of this preamble, to collect national occurrence data for 29 PFAS and lithium. PFAS and lithium are not currently subject to national primary drinking water regulations, and EPA is requiring collection of data under UCMR 5 to inform EPA regulatory determinations and risk-management decisions. Consistent with EPA's PFAS Strategic Roadmap, UCMR 5 will provide new data critically needed to improve EPA's understanding of the frequency that 29 PFAS (and lithium) are found in the nation's drinking water systems and at what levels. This data will ensure science-based decision-making and help prioritize protection of disadvantaged communities.

2. Does this action apply to me?

This final rule applies to PWSs described in this section. PWSs are systems that provide water for human consumption through pipes, or constructed conveyances, to at least 15 service connections or that regularly serve an average of at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days out of the year. A community water system (CWS) is a PWS that has at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents. A non-transient non-community water system (NTNCWS) is a PWS that is not a CWS and that regularly serves at least 25 of the same people over 6 months per year. Under this final rule, all large CWSs and NTNCWSs serving more than 10,000 people are required to monitor. In addition, small CWSs and NTNCWSs serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people are required to monitor (subject to available EPA appropriations and EPA notification of such requirement) as are the PWSs included in a nationally representative sample of CWSs and NTNCWSs serving between 25 and 3,299 people (see “Selection of Nationally Representative Public Water Systems for the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule: 2021 Update” for a description of the statistical approach for EPA's selection of the nationally representative sample (USEPA, 2021a), available in the UCMR 5 public docket). EPA expects to clarify the monitoring responsibilities for affected small systems by approximately July 1 of each year preceding sample collection, based on the availability of appropriations each year.

As in previous UCMRs, transient non-community water systems (TNCWSs) ( i.e., non-community water systems that do not regularly serve at least 25 of the same people over 6 months per year) are not required to monitor under UCMR 5. EPA leads UCMR 5 monitoring as a direct-implementation program. States, Territories, and Tribes with primary enforcement responsibility (primacy) to administer the regulatory program for PWSs under SDWA (hereinafter collectively referred to in this document as “states”), can participate in the implementation of UCMR 5 through voluntary Partnership Agreements (see discussion of Partnership Agreements in Section III.D of this preamble). Under Partnership Agreements, states can choose to be involved in various aspects of UCMR 5 monitoring for PWSs they oversee; however, the PWS remains responsible for compliance with the final rule. Potentially regulated categories and entities are identified in the following table.

CategoryExamples of potentially regulated entitiesNAICS *
* NAICS = North American Industry Classification System.
State, local, & Tribal governmentsState, local, and Tribal governments that analyze water samples on behalf of PWSs required to conduct such analysis; State, local, and Tribal governments that directly operate CWSs and NTNCWSs required to monitor924110
IndustryPrivate operators of CWSs and NTNCWSs required to monitor221310
MunicipalitiesMunicipal operators of CWSs and NTNCWSs required to monitor924110

This table is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be regulated by this action. This table lists the types of entities that EPA is aware could potentially be regulated by this action. Other types of entities not listed in the table could also be regulated. To determine whether your entity is regulated by this action, you should carefully examine the definition of PWS found in Title 40 in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 40 CFR 141.2 and 141.3, and the applicability criteria found in 40 CFR 141.40(a)(1) and (2). If you have questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular entity, please consult the contacts listed in the preceding FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section of this preamble.

3. What is EPA's authority for taking this action?

As part of EPA's responsibilities under SDWA, the agency implements section 1445(a)(2), Monitoring Program for Unregulated Contaminants. This section, as amended in 1996, requires that once every five years, beginning in August 1999, EPA issue a list of not more than 30 unregulated contaminants to be monitored by PWSs. SDWA requires that EPA enter the monitoring data into the agency's publicly available National Contaminant Occurrence Database (NCOD) at https://www.epa.gov/sdwa/national-contaminant-occurrence-database-ncod.

EPA must vary the frequency and schedule for monitoring based on the number of people served, the source of supply, and the contaminants likely to be found. EPA is using SDWA Section 1445(a)(2) authority as the basis for monitoring the unregulated contaminants under this final rule.

Section 2021 of America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018 (AWIA) (Pub. L. 115-270) amended SDWA and specifies that, subject to the availability of EPA appropriations for such purpose and sufficient laboratory capacity, EPA's UCMR program must require all PWSs serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people to monitor for the contaminants in a particular UCMR cycle, and ensure that only a nationally representative sample of systems serving between 25 and 3,299 people are required to monitor for those contaminants. EPA has developed this final rule anticipating that necessary appropriations will become available; however, to date, Congress has not appropriated additional funding ( i.e., funding in addition to the $2.0 million that EPA has historically set aside each year from the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund, using SDWA authority, to support UCMR monitoring at small systems) to cover monitoring expenses for all PWSs serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people. Provisions in the final rule enable the agency to adjust the number of these systems that must monitor based upon available appropriations.

AWIA did not amend the original SDWA requirements for large PWSs. Therefore, PWSs serving a population larger than 10,000 people continue to be responsible for participating in UCMR.

Section 7311 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 (NDAA) (Pub. L. 116-92) amended SDWA and specifies that EPA shall include all PFAS in UCMR 5 for which a drinking water method has been validated by the Administrator and that are not subject to a national primary drinking water regulation.

4. What is the applicability date?

The applicability date represents an internal milestone used by EPA to determine if a PWS is included in the UCMR program and whether it will be treated as small ( i.e., serving 25 to 10,000 people) or large ( i.e., serving more than 10,000 people). It does not represent a date by which respondents need to take any action. The determination of whether a PWS is required to monitor under UCMR 5 is based on the type of system ( e.g., CWS, NTNCWS, etc.) and its retail population served, as indicated by the Safe Drinking Water Information System Federal Reporting Services (SDWIS/Fed) inventory on February 1, 2021. SDWIS/Fed can be accessed at https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/safe-drinking-water-information-system-sdwis-federal-reporting. Examining water system type and population served as of February 1, 2021 allowed EPA to develop a draft list of PWSs tentatively subject to UCMR 5 and share that list with the states during 2021 for their review. This advance planning and review then allowed EPA to load state-reviewed PWS information into EPA's reporting system so that those PWSs can be promptly notified upon publication of this final rule. If a PWS receives such notification and believes it has been erroneously included in UCMR 5 based on an incorrect retail population, the system should contact their state authority to verify its population served as of the applicability date. If an error impacting rule applicability is identified, the state or the PWS may contact EPA to address the error. The 5-year UCMR 5 cycle spans January 2022 through December 2026, with preparations in 2022, sample collection between January 1, 2023, and December 31, 2025, and completion of data reporting in 2026. By approximately July 1 of the year prior to each year's sample collection ( i.e., by July 1, 2022 for 2023 sampling; by July 1, 2023 for 2024 sampling; and by July 1, 2024 for 2025 sampling) EPA expects to determine whether it has received necessary appropriations to support its plan to monitor at all systems serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people and at a representative group of 800 smaller systems. As EPA finalizes its small-system plan for each sample collection year, the agency will notify the small PWSs accordingly.

B. Summary of the Regulatory Action

EPA is requiring certain PWSs to collect occurrence data for 29 PFAS and lithium. This document addresses key aspects of UCMR 5, including the following: Analytical methods to measure the contaminants; laboratory approval; monitoring timeframe; sampling locations; data elements ( i.e., information required to be collected along with the occurrence data); data reporting timeframes; monitoring cost; public participation; conforming and editorial changes, such as those necessary to remove requirements solely related to UCMR 4; and EPA responses to public comments on the proposed rule. This document also discusses the implication for UCMR 5 of the AWIA Section 2021(a) requirement that EPA collect monitoring data from all systems serving more than 3,300 people “subject to the availability of appropriations.”

Regardless of whether EPA is able to carry out the small-system monitoring as planned, or instead reduces the scope of that monitoring, the small-system data collection, coupled with data collection from all systems serving more than 10,000 people under this action, will provide scientifically valid data on the national occurrence of 29 PFAS and lithium in drinking water. The UCMR data are the primary source of national occurrence data that EPA uses to inform regulatory and other risk management decisions for drinking water contaminant candidates.

EPA is required under SDWA Section 1445(a)(2)(C)(ii) to pay the “reasonable cost of such testing and laboratory analysis” for all applicable PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people. Consistent with AWIA, EPA will require monitoring at as many systems serving 3,300 to 10,000 people as appropriations support (see Section IV.B of this preamble for more information on the agency's sampling design).

The agency received several public comments expressing concern that significant laboratory capacity will be needed to support the full scope envisioned for UCMR 5 PFAS monitoring. EPA anticipates that sufficient laboratory capacity will exist to support the expanded UCMR 5 scope. EPA's experience over the first four cycles of UCMR implementation has been that laboratory capacity quickly grows to meet UCMR demand. EPA also notes that the number of laboratories successfully participating in the early stages of the UCMR 5 laboratory approval program is a good indicator that there will be a robust national network of laboratories experienced in PFAS drinking water analysis.

By early 2022, EPA will notify all small CWSs and NTNCWSs serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people of their anticipated requirement to monitor, which EPA expects to confirm and schedule by July 1 preceding each collection year based on the availability of appropriations. The nationally representative sample of smaller PWSs described in Section I.A of this preamble will be similarly notified and advised of their schedules.

This final rule addresses the requirements of the NDAA by including all 29 PFAS that are within the scope of EPA Methods 533 and 537.1. Both of these methods have been validated by EPA for drinking water analysis.

C. Economic Analysis

1. What is the estimated cost of this action?

EPA estimates the total average national cost of this action would be $21 million per year over the 5-year effective period of the final rule (2022-2026) assuming EPA collects information from all systems serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people. All of these costs are associated with paperwork burden under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA). EPA discusses the expected costs as well as documents the assumptions and data sources used in the preparation of this estimate in the “Information Collection Request for the Final Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5)” (USEPA, 2021b). Costs are incurred by large PWSs (for sampling and analysis); small PWSs (for sampling); state regulatory agencies ( i.e., those who volunteer to assist EPA with oversight and implementation support); and EPA (for regulatory support and oversight activities, and analytical and shipping costs for samples from small PWSs). These costs are also summarized in Exhibit 1 of this preamble. EPA's estimates are based on executing the full monitoring plan for small systems ( i.e., including all systems serving 3,300 to 10,000 people and a representative group of 800 smaller systems). As such, those estimates represent an upper bound. If EPA does not receive the necessary appropriations in one or more of the collections years—and thus collects data from fewer small systems—the actual costs would be lower than those estimated here.

EPA received several comments on the cost of monitoring. EPA has accounted for the cost/burden associated with all of the PWS activities as part of the comprehensive cost/burden estimates. In order to provide the most accurate and updated cost estimate, EPA re-examined labor burden estimates for states, EPA, and PWS activities and updated costs of laboratory services for sample analysis, based on consultations with national drinking water laboratories, when developing this final rule.

The costs for a particular UCMR cycle are heavily influenced by the selection of contaminants and associated analytical methods. EPA identified three EPA-developed analytical methods (and, in the case of lithium, multiple optional alternative methods) to analyze samples for UCMR 5 contaminants. EPA's estimate of the UCMR 5 analytical cost is $740 per sample set ( i.e., $740 to analyze a set of samples from one sample point and one sample event for the 30 UCMR 5 contaminants).

Exhibit 1 of this preamble details the EPA-estimated annual average national costs (accounting for labor and non-labor expenses). Laboratory analysis and sample shipping account for approximately 65 percent of the estimated total national cost for the implementation of UCMR 5. EPA estimated laboratory costs based on consultations with multiple commercial drinking water testing laboratories. EPA's cost estimates for the laboratory methods include shipping and analysis.

EPA expects that states will incur modest labor costs associated with voluntary assistance with the implementation of UCMR 5. EPA estimated state costs using the relevant assumptions from the State Resource Model developed by the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators (ASDWA) (ASDWA, 2013) to help states forecast resource needs. Model estimates were adjusted to account for actual levels of state participation under UCMR 4. State assistance with EPA's implementation of UCMR 5 is voluntary; thus, the level of effort is expected to vary among states and will depend on their individual agreements with EPA.

EPA assumes that one-third of the systems will collect samples during each of the three sample-collection years from January 2023 through December 2025.

Exhibit 1—Estimated Average Annual Costs of UCMR 5 1
EntityAverage annual cost (million) (2022-2026) 2
1 Based on the scope of small-system monitoring described in AWIA.
2 Totals may not equal the sum of components due to rounding.
3 Labor costs pertain to PWSs, states, and EPA. Costs include activities such as reading the final rule, notifying systems selected to participate, sample collection, data review, reporting, and record keeping.
4 Non-labor costs will be incurred primarily by EPA and by large and very large PWSs. They include the cost of shipping samples to laboratories for testing and the cost of the laboratory analyses.
5 For a typical UCMR program that involves the expanded scope prescribed by AWIA, EPA estimates an average annual cost to the agency of $17M/year (over a 5-year cycle) ($2M/year for the representative sample of 800 PWSs serving between 25 and 3,299 people and $15M/year for all PWSs serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people). The projected cost to EPA for UCMR 5 implementation is lower than for a typical UCMR program because of lower sample analysis expenses. Those lower expenses are a result of analytical method efficiencies ( i.e., being able to monitor for 30 chemicals with only three analytical methods).
Small PWSs (25-10,000), including labor 3 only (non-labor costs 4 paid for by EPA)$0.3
Large PWSs (10,001-100,000), including labor and non-labor costs7.0
Very Large PWSs (100,001 and greater), including labor and non-labor costs2.2
States, including labor costs related to implementation coordination0.8
EPA, including labor for implementation and non-labor for small system testing5 10.5
Average Annual National Total20.8

Additional details regarding EPA's cost assumptions and estimates can be found in the Information Collection Request (ICR) (USEPA, 2021b), ICR Number 2040-0304, which presents estimated cost and labor hours for the 5-year UCMR 5 period of 2022-2026. Copies of the ICR may be obtained from the EPA public docket for this final rule under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2020-0530.

2. What are the benefits of this action?

The public benefits from the information about whether or not unregulated contaminants are present in their drinking water. If contaminants are not found, consumer confidence in their drinking water should improve. If contaminants are found, related health effects may be avoided when subsequent actions, such as regulations, are implemented, reducing or eliminating those contaminants.

II. Public Participation

A. What meetings have been held in preparation for UCMR 5?

EPA held three public meetings on UCMR 5 over the period of 2018 through 2021. EPA held a meeting focused on drinking water methods for unregulated contaminants on June 6, 2018, in Cincinnati, Ohio. Representatives from state agencies, laboratories, PWSs, environmental organizations, and drinking water associations joined the meeting via webinar and in person. Meeting topics included an overview of regulatory process elements (including the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), UCMR, and Regulatory Determination), and drinking water methods under development (see USEPA, 2018 for presentation materials). EPA held a second meeting on July 16, 2019, in Cincinnati, Ohio. Representatives from State agencies, Tribes, laboratories, PWSs, environmental organizations, and drinking water associations participated in the meeting via webinar and in person. Meeting topics included the impacts of AWIA, analytical methods and contaminants being considered by EPA, potential sampling design, and other possible aspects of the UCMR 5 approach (see USEPA, 2019a for meeting materials). EPA held two identical virtual meetings on April 6 and 7, 2021, during the public comment period for the proposed rule (see USEPA, 2021c for presentation materials). Topics included the proposed UCMR 5 monitoring requirements, analyte selection and rationale, analytical methods, the laboratory approval process, and ground water representative monitoring plans (GWRMPs). Representatives of state agencies, laboratories, PWSs, environmental organizations, and drinking water associations participated in the meeting via webinar. In Section II.B of this preamble, the agency is announcing additional meetings to be held in 2022, which will assist with implementation.

B. How do I participate in the upcoming meetings?

EPA will hold multiple virtual meetings during 2022 to discuss UCMR 5 implementation planning, data reporting using Safe Drinking Water Accession and Review System (SDWARS), and best practices for sample collection. Dates and times of the upcoming meetings will be posted on EPA's website at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr/unregulated-contaminant-monitoring-rule-ucmr-meetings-and-materials. EPA anticipates hosting the meetings focused on implementation planning in spring 2022, and the SDWARS and sample-collection meetings in fall 2022. Stakeholders who have participated in past UCMR meetings and/or those who register to use SDWARS will receive notification of these events. Other interested stakeholders are also welcome to participate.

1. Meeting Participation

Those who wish to participate in the public meetings, via webinar, can find information on how to register at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr/unregulated-contaminant-monitoring-rule-ucmr-meetings-and-materials. The number of webinar connections available for the meetings are limited and will be available on a first-come, first-served basis. If stakeholder interest results in exceeding the maximum number of available connections for participants in upcoming webinar offerings, EPA may schedule additional webinars, with dates and times posted on EPA's Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Meetings and Materials web page at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr/unregulated-contaminant-monitoring-rule-ucmr-meetings-and-materials.

2. Meeting Materials

EPA expects to send meeting materials by email to all registered participants prior to the meeting. The materials will be posted on EPA's website at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr/unregulated-contaminant- monitoring-rule-ucmr-meetings-and-materials for people who do not participate in the webinar.

III. General Information

A. How are CCL, UCMR, Regulatory Determination process, and NCOD interrelated?

Under the 1996 amendments to SDWA, Congress established a multi-step, risk-based approach for determining which contaminants would become subject to drinking water standards. Under the first step, EPA is required to publish a CCL every five years that identifies contaminants that are not subject to any proposed or promulgated drinking water regulations, are known or anticipated to occur in PWSs, and may require future regulation under SDWA. EPA published the draft CCL 5 in the Federal Register on July 19, 2021 (86 FR 37948, July 19, 2021 (USEPA, 2021d)). Under the second step, EPA must require, every five years, monitoring of unregulated contaminants as described in this action. The third step requires EPA to determine, every five years, whether or not to regulate at least five contaminants from the CCL. Under Section 1412(b)(1)(A) of SDWA, EPA regulates a contaminant in drinking water if the Administrator determines that:

(1) The contaminant may have an adverse effect on the health of persons;

(2) The contaminant is known to occur or there is substantial likelihood that the contaminant will occur in PWSs with a frequency and at levels of public health concern; and

(3) In the sole judgment of the Administrator, regulation of such contaminant presents a meaningful opportunity for health risk reduction for persons served by PWSs.

For the contaminants that meet all three criteria, SDWA requires EPA to publish national primary drinking water regulations (NPDWRs). Information on the CCL and the regulatory determination process can be found at: https://www.epa.gov/ccl.

The data collected through the UCMR program are made available to the public through the National Contaminant Occurrence Database (NCOD) for drinking water. EPA developed the NCOD to satisfy requirements in SDWA Section 1445(g), to assemble and maintain a drinking water contaminant occurrence database for both regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water systems. NCOD houses data on unregulated contaminant occurrence; data from EPA's “Six-Year Review” of national drinking water regulations; and ambient and/or source water data. Section 1445(g)(3) of SDWA requires that EPA maintain UCMR data in the NCOD and use the data when evaluating the frequency and level of occurrence of contaminants in drinking water at a level of public health concern. UCMR results can be viewed by the public via NCOD ( https://www.epa.gov/sdwa/national-contaminant-occurrence-database-ncod ) or via the UCMR web page at: https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr.

B. What are the Consumer Confidence Reporting and Public Notice Reporting requirements for public water systems that are subject to UCMR?

In addition to reporting UCMR monitoring data to EPA, PWSs are responsible for presenting and addressing UCMR results in their annual Consumer Confidence Reports (CCRs) (40 CFR 141.153) and must address Public Notice (PN) requirements associated with UCMR (40 CFR 141.207). More details about the CCR and PN requirements can be viewed by the public at: https://www.epa.gov/ccr and https://www.epa.gov/dwreginfo/public-notification-rule, respectively.

C. What is the UCMR 5 timeline?

This final rule identifies a UCMR 5 sampling period of 2023 to 2025. Prior to 2023 EPA will coordinate laboratory approval, tentatively select representative small systems (USEPA, 2021a), organize Partnership Agreements, develop State Monitoring Plans (see Section III.D of this preamble), establish monitoring schedules and inventory, and conduct outreach and training. Exhibit 2 of this preamble illustrates the major activities that EPA expects will take place in preparation for and during the implementation of UCMR 5.

BILLING CODE 6560-50-P



BILLING CODE 6560-50-C

D. What is the role of “States” in UCMR?

UCMR is a direct implementation rule ( i.e., EPA has primary responsibility for its implementation) and state participation is voluntary. Under the previous UCMR cycles, specific activities that individual states agreed to carry out or assist with were identified and established exclusively through Partnership Agreements. Through Partnership Agreements, states can help EPA implement UCMR and help ensure that the UCMR data are of the highest quality possible to best support the agency decision making. Under UCMR 5, EPA will continue to use the Partnership Agreement process to determine and document the following: The process for review and revision of the State Monitoring Plans; replacing and updating PWS information, including inventory ( i.e., PWS identification codes (PWSID), facility identification code along with associated facility types and water source type, etc.); review of proposed GWRMPs; notification and instructions for systems; and compliance assistance. EPA recognizes that states often have the best information about their PWSs and encourages them to partner in the UCMR 5 program.

E. How did EPA consider Children's Environmental Health?

By monitoring for unregulated contaminants that may pose health risks via drinking water, UCMR furthers the protection of public health for all citizens, including children. Children consume more water per unit of body weight compared to adults. Moreover, formula-fed infants drink a large amount of water compared to their body weight; thus, children's exposure to contaminants in drinking water may present a disproportionate health risk (USEPA, 2011). The objective of UCMR 5 is to collect nationally representative drinking water occurrence data on unregulated contaminants for future regulatory consideration. Information on the prioritization process, as well as contaminant-specific information ( e.g., source, use, production, release, persistence, mobility, health effects, and occurrence), that EPA used to select the analyte list, is contained in “Information Compendium for Contaminants for the Final Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5)” (USEPA, 2021e), available in the UCMR 5 public docket.

Since this is a final rule to monitor for contaminants and not to reduce their presence in drinking water to an acceptable level, the rule does not concern environmental health or safety risks presenting a disproportionate risk to children that would be addressed by this action (See Section V.G Executive Order 13045 of this preamble). Therefore, Executive Order 13045 does not apply to UCMR. However, EPA's Policy on Evaluating Health Risks to Children, which ensures that the health of infants and children is explicitly considered in the agency's decision making, is applicable, see: https://www.epa.gov/children/epas-policy-evaluating-risk-children.

EPA considered children's health risks during the development of UCMR 5. This included considering public comments about candidate contaminant priorities. Many commenters supported the agency's inclusion of PFAS and lithium in UCMR 5. Some commenters requested that EPA consider children and infant health risks in its risk communication for UCMR 5.

Using quantitation data from multiple laboratories, EPA establishes statistically-based UCMR reporting levels the agency considers feasible for the national network of approved drinking water laboratories. EPA generally sets the reporting levels as low as is technologically practical for measurement by that national network of laboratories, even if that level is well below concentrations that are currently associated with known or suspected health effects. In doing so, EPA positions itself to better address contaminant risk information in the future, including that associated with unique risks to children.

F. How did EPA address Environmental Justice (EJ)?

EPA has concluded that this action is not subject to Executive Order 12898 because it does not establish an environmental health or safety standard (see Section V.J Executive Order 12898 of this preamble). EPA Administrator Regan issued a directive to all EPA staff to incorporate environmental justice (EJ) into the agency's work, including regulatory activities, such as integrating EJ considerations into the regulatory development processes and considering regulatory options to maximize benefits to communities that “continue to suffer from disproportionately high pollution levels and the resulting adverse health and environmental impacts.” In keeping with this directive, and consistent with AWIA, EPA will, subject to the availability of sufficient appropriations, expand UCMR 5 to include all PWSs serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people as described in Sections I.A.4 and IV.B of this preamble. If there are sufficient appropriations, the expansion in the number of participating PWSs will provide a more comprehensive assessment of contaminant occurrence data from small and rural communities, including disadvantaged communities.

By developing a national characterization of unregulated contaminants that may pose health risks via drinking water from PWSs, UCMR furthers the protection of public health for all citizens. If EPA receives the needed appropriations, the expansion in monitoring scope reflected in UCMR 5 ( i.e., including all PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people) will better support state and regional analyses and determination of potential EJ-related issues that need to be addressed. EPA structured the UCMR 5 rulemaking process to allow for meaningful involvement and transparency. EPA organized public meetings and webinars to share information regarding the development and implementation of UCMR 5; consulted with Tribal governments; and convened a workgroup that included representatives from several states. EPA will support stakeholder interest in UCMR 5 results by making them publicly available, as described in Section III.A of this preamble, and by developing additional risk-communication materials to help individuals and communities understand the significance of contaminant occurrence.

EPA received multiple comments on environmental justice considerations. Commenters expressed support for the continued collection of U.S. Postal Service Zip Codes for each PWS's service area and requested that EPA provide multilingual UCMR materials. EPA will continue to collect Zip Codes for UCMR 5, as collected under UCMR 3 and UCMR 4, to support potential assessments of whether or not certain communities are disproportionately impacted by particular drinking water contaminants. EPA also intends to develop the sampling instructions, fact sheets, and data summaries in both English and Spanish.

G. How did EPA coordinate with Indian Tribal Governments?

EPA has concluded that this action has Tribal implications. However, it will neither impose substantial direct compliance costs on federally recognized Tribal governments, nor preempt Tribal law. (See section V.F Executive Order 13175 of this preamble).

EPA consulted with Tribal officials under the EPA Policy on Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribes early in the process of developing this action to ensure meaningful and timely input into its development. EPA initiated the Tribal consultation and coordination process before proposing the rule by mailing a “Notification of Consultation and Coordination” letter on June 26, 2019, to the Tribal leadership of the then 573 federally recognized Tribes. The letter invited Tribal leaders and representatives of Tribal governments to participate in an August 6, 2019, UCMR 5 Tribal consultation and coordination informational meeting. Presentation topics included an overview of the UCMR program, potential approaches to monitoring and implementation for UCMR 5, and the UCMR 5 contaminants and analytical methods under consideration. After the presentation, EPA provided an opportunity for input and questions on the action. Eight representatives from five Tribes attended the August meeting. Tribal representatives asked clarifying questions regarding program costs to PWSs and changes in PWS participation per AWIA. EPA addressed the questions during the meeting. Following the meeting, EPA received and addressed one additional clarifying question from a Tribal representative during the Tribal consultation process. No other Tribal representatives submitted written comments during the UCMR 5 consultation comment period that ended September 1, 2019.

Prior to the August 2019 meeting, EPA provided additional opportunities for Tribal officials to provide meaningful and timely input into the development of the proposed rule. On July 10, 2019, EPA participated in a monthly conference call with the National Tribal Water Council (NTWC). EPA shared a brief summary of UCMR statutory requirements with the Council and highlighted the upcoming official Tribal meeting. EPA also invited Tribal leaders and representatives to participate in a public meeting, held on July 16, 2019, to discuss the development of the proposed rule. Representatives from six Tribes participated in the public meeting. Following the publication of the proposal, EPA advised the Indian Health Services of the 60-day public comment period to assist with facilitating additional Tribal comments on the proposed rule. EPA received no public comments from Tribal officials.

A complete summary of the consultation, titled, “Summary of the Tribal Coordination and Consultation Process for the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” is provided in the UCMR 5 public docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

H. How are laboratories approved for UCMR 5 analyses?

Consistent with prior UCMRs, this action maintains the requirement that PWSs use laboratories approved by EPA to analyze UCMR 5 samples. Interested laboratories are encouraged to apply for EPA approval as early as possible. The UCMR 5 laboratory approval process, which began with the publication of the UCMR 5 proposal, is designed to assess whether laboratories possess the required equipment and can meet laboratory-performance and data-reporting criteria described in this action.

EPA expects demand for laboratory support to increase significantly based on the greater number of PWSs expected to participate in UCMR 5. EPA anticipates that the number of participating small water systems will increase from the typical 800 to approximately 6,000 (see Exhibit 5 in Section IV.B of this preamble). In preparation for this increase, EPA will solicit proposals and award contracts to laboratories to support small system monitoring prior to the end of the proficiency testing (PT) program. As in previous UCMR programs, EPA expects that laboratories awarded contracts by EPA will be required to first be approved to perform all methods. The requirements for the laboratory approval process are described in steps 1 through 6 of the following paragraphs.

EPA will require laboratories seeking approval to: (1) Provide EPA with data documenting an initial demonstration of capability (IDC) as outlined in each method; (2) verify successful performance at or below the minimum reporting levels (MRLs) as specified in this action; (3) provide information about laboratory standard operating procedures (SOPs); and (4) participate in two EPA PT studies for the analytes of interest. Audits of laboratories may be conducted by EPA prior to and/or following approval, and maintaining approval is contingent on timely and accurate reporting. The “UCMR 5 Laboratory Approval Manual” (USEPA, 2021f), available in the UCMR 5 public docket, provides more specific guidance on EPA laboratory approval program and the specific method acceptance criteria. EPA has included sample-collection procedures that are specific to the methods in the “UCMR 5 Laboratory Manual,” and will address these procedures in our outreach to the PWSs that will be collecting samples.

The UCMR 5 laboratory approval program will provide an assessment of the ability of laboratories to perform analyses using the methods listed in 40 CFR 141.40(a)(3), Table 1 of this preamble. Laboratory participation in the program is voluntary. However, as in the previous UCMRs, EPA will require PWSs to exclusively use laboratories that have been approved under the program. EPA will post a list of approved UCMR 5 laboratories to https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr and will bring this to the attention of the PWSs in our outreach.

1. Request To Participate

Laboratories interested in the UCMR 5 laboratory approval program first email EPA at: UCMR_Lab_Approval@epa.gov to request registration materials. EPA began accepting requests beginning with the publication of the proposal in the Federal Register .

2. Registration

Laboratory applicants provide registration information that includes laboratory name, mailing address, shipping address, contact name, phone number, email address, and a list of the UCMR 5 methods for which the laboratory is seeking approval. This registration step provides EPA with the necessary contact information and ensures that each laboratory receives a customized application package.

3. Application Package

Laboratory applicants will complete and return a customized application package that includes the following: IDC data, including precision, accuracy, and results of MRL studies; information regarding analytical equipment and other materials; proof of current drinking water laboratory certification (for select compliance monitoring methods); method-specific SOPs; and example chromatograms for each method under review.

As a condition of receiving and maintaining approval, the laboratory must promptly post UCMR 5 monitoring results and quality control data that meet method criteria (on behalf of its PWS clients) to EPA's UCMR electronic data reporting system, SDWARS.

Based on the January 1, 2023 start for UCMR 5 sample collection, the deadline for a laboratory to submit the necessary registration and application information is August 1, 2022.

4. EPA's Review of Application Package

EPA will review the application packages and, if necessary, request follow-up information. Laboratories that successfully complete the application process become eligible to participate in the UCMR 5 PT program.

5. Proficiency Testing

A PT sample is a synthetic sample containing a concentration of an analyte or mixture of analytes that is known to EPA, but unknown to the laboratory. To be approved, a laboratory must meet specific acceptance criteria for the analysis of a UCMR 5 PT sample(s) for each analyte in each method, for which the laboratory is seeking approval. EPA offered three PT studies between publication of the proposed rule and final rule, and anticipates offering at least two additional studies. Interested laboratories must participate in and report data for at least two PT studies. This allows EPA to collect a robust dataset for PT results, and provides laboratories with extra analytical experience using UCMR 5 methods. Laboratories must pass a PT for every analyte in the method to be approved for that method and may participate in multiple PT studies in order to produce passing results for each analyte. EPA has taken this approach in UCMR 5, recognizing that EPA Method 533 contains 25 analytes. EPA does not expect to conduct additional PT studies after the start of PWS monitoring; however, EPA expects to conduct laboratory audits (remote and/or on-site) throughout the implementation of UCMR 5 on an as needed and/or random basis. Initial laboratory approval is contingent on successful completion of PT studies, which includes properly uploading the PT results to SDWARS. Continued laboratory approval is contingent on successful completion of the audit process and satisfactorily meeting all the other stated conditions.

6. Written EPA Approval

For laboratories that have already successfully completed steps 1 through 5, EPA sent the laboratory a notification letter listing the methods for which approval was “pending” ( i.e., pending promulgation of this final rule). Because no changes have been made to the final rule that impact the laboratory approval program, laboratories that received pending-approval letters will be notified of full approval without further action on their part. Approval actions for additional laboratories that successfully complete steps 1 through 5 will also be documented by EPA in writing.

I. What documents are being incorporated by reference?

The following methods are being incorporated by reference into this section for UCMR 5 monitoring. All method material is available for inspection electronically at https://www.regulations.gov (Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2020-0530), or from the sources listed for each method. The methods that may be used to support monitoring under this final rule are as follows:

1. Methods From the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

The following methods are available at EPA's Docket No. EPA-HQ-OW-2020-0530.

(i) EPA Method 200.7 “Determination of Metals and Trace Elements in Water and Wastes by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry,” Revision 4.4, 1994. Available at https://www.epa.gov/esam/method-2007-determination-metals-and-trace-elements-water-and-wastes-inductively-coupled-plasma. This is an EPA method for the analysis of metals and trace elements in water by ICP-AES and may be used to measure lithium during UCMR 5. See also the discussion of non-EPA alternative methods for lithium in this section.

(ii) EPA Method 533 “Determination of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water by Isotope Dilution Anion Exchange Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry,” November 2019, EPA 815-B-19-020. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods/analytical-methods-developed-epa-analysis-unregulated-contaminants. This is an EPA method for the analysis PFAS in drinking water using SPE and LC/MS/MS and is to be used to measure 25 PFAS during UCMR 5 (11Cl-PF3OUdS, 8:2 FTS, 4:2 FTS, 6:2 FTS, ADONA, 9Cl-PF3ONS, HFPO-DA (GenX), NFDHA, PFEESA, PFMPA, PFMBA, PFBS, PFBA, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHpS, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFHxA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOA, PFPeS, PFPeA, and PFUnA).

(iii) EPA Method 537.1 “Determination of Selected Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS),” Version 2.0, March 2020, EPA/600/R-20/006. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods/analytical-methods-developed-epa-analysis-unregulated-contaminants. This is an EPA method for the analysis of PFAS in drinking water using SPE and LC/MS/MS and is to be used to measure four PFAS during UCMR 5 (NEtFOSAA, NMeFOSAA, PFTA, and PFTrDA).

2. Alternative Methods From American Public Health Association—Standard Methods (SM)

The following methods are from American Public Health—Standard Methods (SM), 800 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20001-3710.

(i) “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater,” 23rd edition (2017).

(a) SM 3120 B, “Metals by Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (2017): Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Method.” This is a Standard Method for the analysis of metals in water and wastewater by emission spectroscopy using ICP and may be used for the analysis of lithium.

(ii) “Standard Methods Online,” approved 1999. Available for purchase at https://www.standardmethods.org.

(a) SM 3120 B, “Metals by Plasma Emission Spectroscopy: Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Method, Standard Methods Online,” revised December 14, 2020. This is a Standard Method for the analysis of metals in water and wastewater by emission spectroscopy using ICP and may be used for the analysis of lithium.

3. Methods From ASTM International

The following methods are from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

(i) ASTM D1976-20, “Standard Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy,” approved May 1, 2020. Available for purchase at https://www.astm.org/Standards/D1976.htm. This is an ASTM method for the analysis of elements in water by ICP-AES and may be used to measure lithium.

IV. Description of Final Rule and Summary of Responses to Public Comments

EPA published “Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) for Public Water Systems and Announcement of Public Meeting;” Proposed Rule, on March 11, 2021 (86 FR 13846, (USEPA, 2021g)). The UCMR 5 proposal identified three EPA analytical methods, and multiple alternative methods, to support water system monitoring for 30 UCMR 5 contaminants (29 PFAS and lithium) and detailed other potential changes relative to UCMR 4. Among the other changes reflected in the UCMR 5 proposal were the following: Requirement for water systems serving 3,300 to 10,000 people to monitor per AWIA requirements “subject to the availability of appropriations”; provisions for sampling frequency, timing, and locations; submission timeframe for GWRMPs; data reporting timeframes; and reporting requirements.

EPA received 75 sets of comments from 72 public commenters, including other federal agencies, state and local governments, utilities and utility stakeholder organizations, laboratories, academia, non-governmental organizations, and other interested stakeholders. After considering the comments, EPA developed the final UCMR 5 as described in Exhibit 3 of this preamble. Except as noted, the UCMR 5 final rule approach is consistent with the proposed rule. A track-changes version of the rule language, comparing UCMR 4 to UCMR 5, (“Revisions to 40 CFR 141.35 and 141.40” (USEPA, 2021h)), is included in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

This section summarizes key aspects of this final rule and the associated comments received in response to the proposed rule. EPA has compiled all public comments and EPA's responses in the “Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” (USEPA, 2021i), which can be found in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

Exhibit 3—Key Elements of Final UCMR 5
NumberTitle
CFR rule sectionDescription of sectionCorresponding preamble section
NumberTitle
40 CFR 141.40(a)(3)Contaminants in UCMR 5Maintains proposed list of 29 PFAS and lithium for monitoringIV.A
40 CFR 141.35(d), 40 CFR 141.40(a)(2)(ii), and 40 CFR 141.40(a)(4)(ii)Scope of UCMR 5 applicabilityRevises the scope of UCMR 5 to reflect that small CWSs and NTNCWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people will monitor (consistent with AWIA), if they are notified by the agencyIV.B
40 CFR 141.40(a)(i)(B)Sampling frequency and timingMaintains proposed sample frequency (four sample events for SW, two sample events for GW)IV.C
40 CFR 141.35(c)(3)Sampling locations and Ground Water Representative Monitoring Plans (GWRMPs)Maintains proposed flexibility for PWSs to submit a GWRMP proposal to EPAIV.D
40 CFR 141.35(c)(6)(ii) and 40 CFR 141.40(a)(5)(vi)Reporting timeframeMaintains proposed timeframe (“within 90 days from the sample collection date”) for laboratories to post and approve analytical results in EPA's electronic data reporting system (for review by the PWS). Maintains proposed timeframe (“30 days from when the laboratory posts the data to EPA's electronic data reporting system”) for PWSs to review, approve, and submit data to the state and EPAIV.E
40 CFR 141.35(e)Reporting requirementsRemoves one proposed data element, maintains 27 proposed data elements, and clarifies the use of state dataIV.F
40 CFR 141.40(a)(3)Minimum reporting levels (MRL)Maintains proposed MRLs for contaminantsIV.G

A. What contaminants must be monitored under UCMR 5?

1. This Final Rule

EPA is maintaining the proposed list of UCMR 5 contaminants and the methods associated with analyzing those contaminants (see Exhibit 4 of this preamble). Further information on the prioritization process, as well as contaminant-specific information ( e.g., source, use, production, release, persistence, mobility, health effects, and occurrence), that EPA used to select the analyte list, is contained in “Information Compendium for Contaminants for the Final Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5)” (USEPA, 2021e). This Information Compendium can be found in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

Exhibit 4—UCMR 5 Analytes
1 EPA Method 533 (Solid phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)) (USEPA, 2019b).
2 EPA Method 537.1 Version 2.0 (Solid phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)) (USEPA, 2020).
3 EPA Method 200.7 (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)) (USEPA, 1994).
4 Standard Methods (SM) 3120 B (SM, 2017) or SM 3120 B-99 (SM Online, 1999).
5 ASTM International (ASTM) D1976-20 (ASTM, 2020).
Twenty-five Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) using EPA Method 533 (SPE LC/MS/MS):
11-chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic acid (11Cl-PF3OUdS)perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA).
1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (8:2 FTS)perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA).
1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (4:2 FTS)perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS).
1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS)perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA).
4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoic acid (ADONA)perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS).
9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanone-1-sulfonic acid (9Cl-PF3ONS)perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA).
hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) (GenX)perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA).
nonafluoro‐3,6‐dioxaheptanoic acid (NFDHA)perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS).
perfluoro (2‐ethoxyethane) sulfonic acid (PFEESA)perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).
perfluoro‐3‐methoxypropanoic acid (PFMPA)perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS).
perfluoro‐4‐methoxybutanoic acid (PFMBA)perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA).
perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS)perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA).
perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA)
Four Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) using EPA Method 537.1 (SPE LC/MS/MS):
n-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid (NEtFOSAA)perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA).
n-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid (NMeFOSAA)perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA).
One Metal/Pharmaceutical using EPA Method 200.7 (ICP-AES)or alternate SMor ASTM:
lithium

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

Those who expressed an opinion about the proposed UCMR 5 analytes were supportive of EPA's inclusion of the 29 PFAS and lithium. Commenters expressed mixed opinions on the consideration of additional contaminants, particularly “aggregate PFAS,” Legionella pneumophilia, haloacetonitriles, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The major comments and EPA responses regarding these contaminants are summarized in the discussion that follows.

a. Aggregate PFAS Measure

EPA received multiple comments encouraging the agency to validate and include a total organic fluorine (TOF) and/or total oxidizable precursors (TOP) technique in UCMR 5 as a screening tool to determine “total PFAS.” EPA also received comments expressing concern for the limitations of the analytical methodologies, including a lack of sensitivity and specificity for PFAS using TOF.

EPA has not identified a complete, validated, peer-reviewed aggregate PFAS method with the appropriate specificity and sensitivity to support UCMR 5 monitoring. EPA's Office of Water and Office of Research and Development are currently developing and evaluating methodologies for broader PFAS analysis in drinking water, however, the measurement approaches are subject to significant technical challenges. The sensitivity of TOF is currently in the low μg/L range, as opposed to the low ng/L range of interest required for PFAS analysis in drinking water. TOF is also not specific to PFAS. TOP, while focusing on PFAS, is limited to measuring compounds that can be detected by LC/MS/MS and the technique requires two LC/MS/MS analyses; one before oxidation and one after oxidation. EPA is evaluating the TOP approach to understand the degree to which certain precursors are oxidized, and subsequently measurable by LC/MS/MS, as well as the degree to which PFAS that were measured in the pre-oxidation sample are still measured post-oxidation.

EPA is also monitoring progress by commercial laboratories and academia. In 2020 and 2021, EPA contacted commercial laboratories that advertised TOF capability, and these laboratories indicated that they had not yet commercialized the TOF method (see Appendix 4 in “Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” (USEPA, 2021i), which can be found in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble). TOP has been more widely commercialized but is often used as an exploratory tool to estimate precursors.

In summary, there are still analytical challenges leading to uncertainties in the results using the TOF and TOP techniques. More research and method refinement are needed before a peer-reviewed validated method that meets UCMR quality control needs is available to address PFAS more broadly.

b. Legionella Pneumophila

Some comments supported EPA's proposal to not include Legionella pneumophila in UCMR 5, while others encouraged EPA to add it. EPA has decided not to include Legionella pneumophila in the final UCMR 5.

Under EPA's Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), EPA established NPDWRs for Giardia, viruses, Legionella, turbidity and heterotrophic bacteria and set maximum contaminant level goals of zero for Giardia lamblia, viruses and Legionella pneumophila (54 FR 27486, June 29, 1989 (USEPA, 1989)). EPA is currently examining opportunities to enhance protection against Legionella pneumophila through revisions to the suite of Microbial and Disinfection Byproduct (MDBP) rules. In addition to the SWTR, the MDBP suite includes the Stage 1 and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproduct Rules; the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and the Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule.

As stated in the conclusions from EPA's third “Six-Year Review of Drinking Water Standards” (82 FR 3518, January 11, 2017 (USEPA, 2017)), “EPA identified the following NPDWRs under the SWTR as candidates for revision, because of the opportunity to further reduce residual risk from pathogens (including opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella ) beyond the risk addressed by the current SWTR.” In accordance with the dates in the Settlement Agreement between EPA and Waterkeeper Alliance ( Waterkeeper Alliance, Inc. v. U.S. EPA, No. 1:19-cv-00899-LJL (S.D.N.Y. Jun. 1, 2020)), the agency anticipates signing a proposal for revisions to the MDBP rules and a final action on the proposal by July 31, 2024 and September 30, 2027, respectively. EPA has concluded that UCMR 5 data collection for Legionella pneumophila would not be completed in time to meaningfully inform MDBP revision and that UCMR 5 data for Legionella pneumophila would soon lack significance because it would not reflect conditions in water systems after any regulatory revisions become effective (because water quality would be expected to change as a result of PWSs complying with such regulatory revisions).

EPA estimates that Legionella pneumophila monitoring under UCMR 5 would have added $10.5 million in new expenses for large PWSs, $20 million in new expenses for the agency for small system monitoring, and $0.5 million in new expenses for small PWSs and states over the 5-year UCMR period. Because the data would not be available in time to inform MDBP regulatory revisions and because MDBP revisions could change the presence of Legionella pneumophila in drinking water distribution systems ( Legionella occurrence may change, for example, if the required minimum disinfectant residual concentration is higher following MDBP revisions), EPA concluded that the expense of this monitoring is not warranted given the limited utility of the data.

c. Haloacetonitriles

Some commenters agreed with EPA's rationale for not including the four unregulated haloacetonitrile disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in UCMR 5, while others encouraged EPA to include them. EPA has decided not to include haloacetonitrile DBPs in the final UCMR 5.

As was the case with Legionella pneumophila, EPA has concluded that UCMR 5 data collection for haloacetonitriles would not be completed in time to meaningfully inform MDBP revision and that UCMR 5 data would not reflect conditions in water systems after any regulatory revisions become effective (haloacetonitrile occurrence may change, for example, if the required minimum disinfectant residual concentration is higher following MDBP revisions).

As with Legionella pneumophila, inclusion of haloacetonitriles in UCMR 5 would introduce significant monitoring and reporting complexity and cost compared to the sampling design for PFAS and lithium. If haloacetonitriles were to be added to UCMR 5, most of the additional expenses would be borne by large PWSs (for analysis of their samples) and EPA (for analysis of samples from small PWSs). EPA estimates this would result in $13 million in new expenses for large PWSs, $19 million in new expenses for the agency, and $0.5 million in new expenses for small PWSs and states over the 5-year UCMR period.

Because the data would not be available in time to inform MDBP regulatory revisions and because MDBP revisions could change the presence of haloacetonitriles in drinking water distribution systems, EPA concluded that the expense of this monitoring is not warranted given the limited utility of the data.

d. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

EPA received some comments that support the agency's proposed decision to not include 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) monitoring in UCMR 5, and others recommending that 1,2,3-TCP be included. EPA concluded that appropriate analytical methods are not currently available to support additional UCMR data collection ( i.e., above and beyond the data collection under UCMR 3 (USEPA, 2019c)).

Several commenters suggested that EPA consider analytical methods to monitor for 1,2,3-trichloropropane at lower levels. They suggested, for example, that the agency use California method SRL-524M (California DHS, 2002), which is prescribed by the state for compliance monitoring at 0.005 μg/L (5 ng/L). EPA has reviewed SRL 524M and determined that the associated quality control (QC) and IDC criteria do not meet the EPA's needs for drinking water analysis. See also EPA's “Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” (USEPA, 2021i), which can be found in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

Occurrence data collected during UCMR 3 (77 FR 26072, May 2, 2012 (USEPA, 2012)) for 1,2,3-trichloropropane may be found at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr/occurrence-data-unregulated-contaminant-monitoring-rule#3.

B. What is the UCMR 5 sampling design?

1. This Final Rule

EPA has utilized up to three different tiers of contaminant monitoring, associated with three different “lists” of contaminants, in past UCMRs. EPA designed the monitoring tiers to reflect the availability and complexity of analytical methods, laboratory capacity, sampling frequency, and cost. The Assessment Monitoring tier is the largest in scope and is used to collect data to determine the national occurrence of “List 1” contaminants for the purpose of estimating national population exposure. Assessment Monitoring has been used in the four previous UCMRs to collect occurrence data from all systems serving more than 10,000 people and a representative sample of 800 smaller systems. Consistent with AWIA, the Assessment Monitoring approach was redesigned for UCMR 5 and reflects the plan, subject to additional appropriations being made available for this purpose, that would require all systems serving 3,300 or more people and a representative sample of systems serving 25 to 3,299 people to perform monitoring (USEPA, 2021a). The population-weighted sampling design for the nationally representative sample of small systems (used in previous UCMR cycles to select 800 systems serving 25 to 10,000 people and used in UCMR 5 to select 800 systems serving 25 to 3,299 people) calls for the sample to be stratified by water source type (ground water or surface water), service size category, and state (where each state is allocated a minimum of two systems in its State Monitoring Plan). The allowable margin of error at the 99 percent confidence level is ±1 percent for an expected contaminant occurrence of 1 percent at the national level. Assessment Monitoring is the primary tier used for contaminants and generally relies on analytical methods that use more common techniques that are expected to be widely available. EPA has used an Assessment Monitoring tier for 72 contaminants and contaminant groups over the course of UCMR 1 through UCMR 4. The agency is exclusively requiring Assessment Monitoring in UCMR 5. This monitoring approach yields the most complete set of occurrence data to support EPA's decision making.

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

Many commenters expressed support for the increase in small system Assessment Monitoring, with no opposition to the inclusion of all PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people in UCMR 5. The U.S. Small Business Administration asked that EPA clarify small-system responsibilities in the event of inadequate EPA funding to fully support the envisioned monitoring.

Recognizing the uncertainty in funding from year-to-year, the agency will implement a “monitor if notified” approach for PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people. In 2022, EPA will notify the approximately 6,000 small PWSs tentatively selected for the expanded UCMR 5 (all PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people and a statistically-based, nationally representative set of 800 PWSs serving 25 to 3,299 people) of their anticipated UCMR 5 monitoring requirements; that initial notification will specify that monitoring is conditioned on EPA having sufficient funds and will be confirmed in a second notification. Upon receiving appropriations for a particular year, EPA will determine the number of small PWSs whose monitoring is covered by the appropriations, and notify the included small PWSs of their upcoming requirements at least six months prior to their scheduled monitoring. EPA has made minor edits to 40 CFR 141.35 and 40 CFR 141.40 for consistency with this approach.

Additionally, to ensure that EPA has access to a nationally representative set of small-system data, even in the absence of sufficient appropriations to support the planned monitoring by small systems, a statistically-based nationally representative set of 800 PWSs will also be selected from among the PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people. An updated description of the statistical approach for the nationally representative samples for UCMR 5 is available in the docket as “Selection of Nationally Representative Public Water Systems for the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule: 2021 Update” (USEPA 2021a).

To minimize the impact of the final rule on small systems (those serving 25 to 10,000 people), EPA pays for their sample kit preparation, sample shipping fees, and sample analysis. Large systems (those serving more than 10,000 people) pay for all costs associated with their monitoring. Exhibit 5 of this preamble shows a summary of the estimated number of PWSs subject to monitoring.

Exhibit 5—Systems Expected To Participate in UCMR 5 Monitoring
List 1 chemicals
1 EPA pays for all analytical costs associated with monitoring at small systems.
2 Counts for small PWSs serving 3,300-10,000 people are approximate.
3 Large system counts are approximate.
4 In the absence of appropriations to support monitoring at all PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people, EPA could instead include as few as 400 PWSs serving 25 to 3,299 people and 400 PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people (for a representative sample of 800 PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people).
System size (number of people served)National sample: Assessment monitoring designTotal number of systems per size category
List 1 chemicals
Small Systems1 (25-3,299)800 randomly selected systems (CWSs and NTNCWSs)4 800
Small Systems12 (3,300-10,000)All systems (CWSs and NTNCWSs) subject to the availability of appropriations4 5,147
Large Systems3 (10,001 and over)All systems (CWSs and NTNCWSs)4,364
Total10,311

C. What is the sampling frequency and timing?

1. This Final Rule

This final rule maintains the proposed sampling frequency and timeframe for Assessment Monitoring. On a per-system basis, the anticipated number of samples collected by each system is consistent with sample collection during prior UCMR cycles (although, as described elsewhere in this document, the number of water systems expected to participate in UCMR 5 is significantly greater under this final rule per AWIA). Water systems will be required to collect samples based on the typical UCMR sampling frequency and timeframe as follows: For surface water, ground water under the direct influence of surface water, and mixed locations, sampling will take place for four consecutive quarters over the course of 12 months (total of 4 sampling events). Sampling events will occur three months apart. For example, if the first sample is taken in January, the second will then occur anytime in April, the third will occur anytime in July, and the fourth will occur anytime in October. For ground water locations, sampling will take place twice over the course of 12 months (total of 2 sampling events). Sampling events will occur five to seven months apart. For example, if the first sample is taken in April, the second sample will then occur anytime in September, October, or November.

EPA, in conjunction with the states, will initially determine schedules (year and months of monitoring) for large water systems. Thereafter, large PWSs will have an opportunity to modify this initial schedule for planning purposes or other reasons ( e.g., to spread costs over multiple years, if a sampling location will be closed during the scheduled month of monitoring, etc.). EPA will schedule and coordinate small system monitoring (for PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people and for the nationally representative sample of smaller PWSs) by working closely with partnering states. State Monitoring Plans provide an opportunity for states to review and revise the initial sampling schedules developed by EPA (see discussion of State Monitoring Plans in Section III.D of this preamble).

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

EPA received two comments recommending that the agency reduce the sampling frequency for both ground water (GW) and surface water (SW) systems, including a suggestion that UCMR 5 require only one sample per system. EPA concluded that less frequent data collection would affect the integrity of the data and result in insufficient data to fulfill the needs envisioned by the 1996 SDWA Amendments, particularly with regard to supporting the Administrator's regulatory determinations and drinking water regulation development. Maintaining the proposed sampling frequency allows the resulting contaminant data to be analyzed for temporal variability, in addition to between-system variability. These analyses are not possible with a single-sample structure. When making regulatory determinations, EPA evaluates the number of systems (and populations) with means or single measured values above health levels of concern, as both values provide important information.

EPA acknowledges that based on UCMR 3 (77 FR 26072, May 2, 2012 (USEPA, 2012)) data, the correlation between results from multiple sample events can be high; however, the approach suggested by commenters would yield less accurate data for several reasons. EPA's assessment of sampling frequency using UCMR 3 and UCMR 4 data (see Appendix 2 in “Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” (USEPA, 2021i), which can be found in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble) shows that for both SW and GW systems, there are numerous cases where occurrence is notably different between sample events. Focusing first on UCMR 3 results for PWS with SW sources, the number of sample points at which PFOS was measured at or above the MRL was 108 percent greater when considering multiple sample events, versus only considering the first sample event. There were multiple occasions where the results from the first sample event were below the health-based reference concentration while subsequent results were above it. Looking at UCMR 3 results for PWSs with GW sources, PFOS was measured at or above the MRL at 26 percent more sample points in the second sample event relative to the first. Similar to the UCMR 3 results for SW systems, there were multiple occasions where the second result from a GW system exceeded the reference concentration while the first result did not.

Some commenters suggested that between-system variability is much greater for PFAS than within-system variability. While it may be less than between-system variability, within-system variability can still be important. Shifting to a single sample prevents reasonable assessments of within-system variability and limits the ability to observe between-system variability estimates. This would then drastically reduce the ability to characterize uncertainty.

Additionally, although the provisions of AWIA could include the addition of approximately 5,200 more PWSs to UCMR 5 relative to earlier cycles and thus capture more spatial variation in the resulting dataset, it is important to note that spatial variation is different than temporal or seasonal variation. Capturing more of one does not diminish the influence of the others on national occurrence data and reducing the frequency of sampling eliminates the possibility of analyzing the resulting data for temporal variation. In addition, statistical means based on two measurements have considerably less error than a single measurement per system, and provide a more robust dataset for future regulatory decisions. Having more than one sample event also greatly reduces the chance of underestimating the true proportion of occurrence of the contaminant in drinking water ( i.e., exposure).

Regarding monitoring frequency and burden, EPA notes that the agency allows large GW systems the opportunity to reduce monitoring burden by using approved representative entry points (40 CFR 141.35(c)(3)) as described in Section IV.D of this preamble. Representative monitoring plans will result in fewer samples and thus time and cost savings to the PWS. Consecutive systems with multiple connections from a particular wholesaler are also permitted to choose one entry point as representative, thus reducing burden.

D. Where are the sampling locations and what is representative monitoring?

1. This Final Rule

Consistent with past UCMR cycles, sample collection for UCMR 5 contaminants will take place at the entry point to the distribution system (EPTDS). As during past UCMRs and as described in 40 CFR 141.35(c)(3) of this preamble, this final rule will allow large ground water systems (or large surface water systems with ground water sources) that have multiple ground water EPTDSs to request approval to sample at representative monitoring locations rather than at each ground water EPTDS. GWRMPs approved under prior UCMRs may be used for UCMR 5, presuming no significant changes in the configuration of the ground water EPTDSs since the prior approval. Water systems that intend to use a previously approved plan must send EPA a copy of the approval documents received under prior UCMRs from their state (if reviewed by the state) or EPA.

Relative to the rules for prior UCMR cycles, this final rule provides greater flexibility to PWSs in submitting GWRMPs to EPA. Plans must be submitted to EPA six months prior to the PWS's scheduled sample collection, instead of by a specified date; those PWSs scheduled to collect samples in 2024 or 2025 will have significant additional time to develop and propose representative plans. PWSs, particularly those scheduled for sample collection in 2023, are encouraged to submit proposals for a new GWRMP by December 31, 2022, to allow time for review by EPA and, as appropriate, the state. EPA will work closely with the states to coordinate the review of GWRMPs in those cases where such review is part of the state's Partnership Agreement. Changes to inventory data in SDWARS that impact a PWS's representative plan before or during the UCMR sampling period must be reported within 30 days of the change. EPA will collaborate with small systems (particularly those with many ground water locations) to develop a GWRMP when warranted, recognizing that EPA pays for the analysis of samples from small systems.

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

EPA received multiple comments regarding GWRMPs and representative sampling for wholesale systems and consecutive connections. Generally, commenters supported the continued use of GWRMPS and the use of previously approved monitoring plans. An additional supporting document, titled, “Instructions for Preparing a Ground Water Representative Monitoring Plan for the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule,” (USEPA, 2021j) has been placed in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

Several commenters recommended that EPA not require monitoring by consecutive systems that purchase 100 percent of their water from wholesale systems that are already subject to UCMR 5 monitoring. They requested that EPA instead require wholesalers to identify the PWSIDs of consecutive systems receiving water from the wholesaler, and that EPA rely on wholesaler monitoring in lieu of monitoring by the consecutive systems. EPA has decided to require monitoring by consecutive systems to conduct monitoring in accordance with UCMR 5. Previous UCMR data demonstrate that wholesalers and purchasers can have different analytical results (see Appendix 3 in “Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” (USEPA, 2021i), which can be found in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble). For example, pairing the results from wholesaler to consecutive connections for 190 manganese results from UCMR 4 (81 FR 92666, December 20, 2016 (USEPA, 2016)), one-third of the results are higher at the wholesaler and one-third of the results are higher at the consecutive connection, with one-third of all results being comparable [±0.4 μg/L]. The agency therefore elected to maintain the proposed approach in which all eligible consecutive systems must monitor, irrespective of monitoring being conducted by the wholesale system from which they purchase drinking water.

E. How long do laboratories and PWSs have to report data?

1. This Final Rule

EPA is maintaining the revised reporting timeframes for laboratories and PWSs as proposed. For UCMR 5, laboratories have 90 days (versus 120 days in prior UCMR cycles) from the sample collection date to post and approve analytical results in SDWARS for PWS review. Large PWSs have 30 days (versus 60 days in prior UCMR cycles) to review and approve the analytical results posted to SDWARS. As with the UCMR 4 requirements, data will be considered approved and available for state and EPA review if the PWS takes no action within their allotted review period.

In the proposed rule for UCMR 5, EPA noted that multiple states have expressed an interest in earlier access to UCMR data (see Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2020-0530). EPA believes that the shorter timeframes for posting and approving data are feasible and reasonable based on our experience with UCMR reporting to date.

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

Commenters generally agreed with the revised timeframes for laboratories to post and approve analytical results in SDWARS. The 90-day laboratory timeframe makes UCMR results more readily available to interested stakeholders and states. Some commenters supported the timely reporting of data by laboratories to ensure that PWSs have adequate time to reconcile QC issues, especially those that may require a PWS to resample. Some expressed concerns that the revised timeframe could be challenging for laboratories. Some suggested that the shorter timeframe be conditioned on consistent functionality and availability of SDWARS.

Commenters generally agreed with the changes in the timeframes for large PWSs to review and approve analytical results posted to SDWARS, though several requested that EPA maintain the 60-day review period.

EPA has observed that many laboratories are routinely posting data to SDWARS within 90 days of sample collection and that many large PWSs are approving and submitting data within 30 days of their laboratory posting the data. Judging by reporting for 2020 monitoring under UCMR 4 (81 FR 92666, December 20, 2016 (USEPA, 2016)), more than 75 percent of laboratories posted and approved data within 90 days, and more than 85 percent of large PWSs who chose to act on their data, did so within 30 days of the laboratory posting it. During UCMR 3 and UCMR 4, less than half of large PWSs chose to actively review and approve their data, as opposed to letting the results default to “approved” status after the review period. The many large PWSs that have routinely chosen to not review and approve their data will not be impacted by the revised timeframe for PWS data review for UCMR 5. See also Appendix 5 in “Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” (USEPA, 2021i), which can be found in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

EPA does not anticipate functionality or availability issues with SDWARS during UCMR 5 but is prepared to make case-by-case exceptions for reporting timeframes should significant issues occur with the reporting system.

F. What are the reporting requirements for UCMR 5?

1. This Final Rule

Today's final rule removes 1 of the proposed data elements (“Direct Potable Reuse Water Information”) and maintains the 27 others described in the proposed rule. EPA has updated some of the data-element definitions for clarity and consistency in the reporting requirements. Please see Table 1 of 40 CFR 141.35(e) of this preamble for the complete list of data elements, definitions and drop-down options that will be provided in the data reporting system.

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

a. Data Elements

EPA received multiple comments on the proposed contaminant-specific data elements, with some commenters questioning the quality, reliability, and utility of some of the data that would be provided to the agency per the proposed data element requirements. Several commenters requested that EPA include rationale explaining the intended use of such data. EPA has updated the data elements for clarity ( e.g., clarifying treatment types, and abbreviations for them; adding the treatment option “NMT = not modified after testing”) and has provided additional rationale (including describing how the information could impact regulatory decision making and risk-management strategies) in the “Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” (USEPA, 2021i), available in the UCMR 5 public docket (see the ADDRESSES section of this preamble). EPA acknowledges the data collected will have some limitations but believes that the collection of the information is still valuable. In addition, EPA notes the modest burden associated with the collection.

b. Reporting State Data

EPA received several comments suggesting that PWSs be permitted to submit occurrence data collected under state-based monitoring, in lieu of conducting UCMR 5 monitoring, to reduce the monitoring burden. In those cases where the monitoring required by a state is aligned with the requirements of UCMR 5, PWSs may be able to conduct PFAS monitoring that meets the needs of their state and UCMR 5, with the understanding that UCMR 5 requirements must be met. This includes the requirement that PFAS samples be analyzed by a UCMR 5-approved laboratory using EPA Method 533 and Method 537.1. EPA offers flexibility for PWSs to reschedule their UCMR 5 monitoring, and PWSs may do so to coordinate it with their state-required monitoring. PWSs wishing to conduct “dual purpose” monitoring ( i.e., concurrently meeting the state and UCMR 5 needs) may contact their state or EPA, as appropriate, if there are questions about whether the state and UCMR 5 requirements are being met.

G. What are the UCMR 5 Minimum Reporting Levels (MRLs) and how were they determined?

1. This Final Rule

EPA is maintaining the proposed minimum reporting levels for the UCMR 5 contaminants. EPA establishes MRLs to ensure consistency in the quality of the information reported to the agency. As defined in 40 CFR 141.40(a)(5)(iii) of this preamble, the MRL is the minimum quantitation level that, with 95 percent confidence, can be achieved by capable analysts at 75 percent or more of the laboratories using a specified analytical method. More detailed explanation of the MRL calculation is in the “Technical Basis for the Lowest Concentration Minimum Reporting Level (LCMRL) Calculator” (USEPA, 2010), available at ( https://www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods/lowest-concentration-minimum-reporting-level-lcmrl-calculator ).

EPA requires each laboratory interested in supporting UCMR analyses to demonstrate that they can reliably make quality measurements at or below the established MRL to ensure that high quality results are being reported by participating laboratories. EPA established the proposed MRLs in 40 CFR 141.40(a)(3), Table 1 of this preamble, for each analyte/method by obtaining data from at least three laboratories that performed “lowest concentration minimum reporting level” (LCMRL) studies. The results from these laboratory LCMRL studies can be found in the “UCMR 5 Laboratory Approval Manual” (USEPA, 2021f), available in the electronic docket (see the ADDRESSES section of this preamble).

The multiple laboratory LCMRLs were then processed through a statistical routine to derive an MRL that, with 95 percent confidence, is predicted to be attainable by 75 percent of laboratories using the prescribed method. EPA considers these to be the lowest reporting levels that can practically and consistently be achieved on a national basis (recognizing that individual laboratories may be able to measure at lower levels).

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

Some commenters recommended that EPA establish lower MRLs for the 29 PFAS in UCMR 5. MRLs used for the UCMR program are based on calculations that account for the ability of laboratories to report accurate and precise measurements with a specific statistical confidence. Based on the results from multiple laboratories that participated in MRL-setting studies, EPA concluded that the proposed MRLs represent the lowest feasible levels for a national MRL measure. Sensitivity ( i.e., quantitation limit) may improve with time, experience, and instrumentation advances.

H. What are the requirements for laboratory analysis of field reagent blank samples?

1. This Final Rule

EPA initially proposed that laboratories analyze all field reagent blank (FRB) samples, along with the corresponding field samples, to reduce the possibility of invalidating a positive field sample result ( i.e., a field sample result at or above the MRL) because of FRB hold times being exceeded.

2. Summary of Major Comments and EPA Responses

EPA did not receive any comments expressing concerns with the laboratory approval process; however, the agency did receive a comment on the FRB sample analysis criteria, suggesting that the agency not require analysis of every FRB sample. EPA Method 537.1 and Method 533, used for PFAS analysis, require collection of a corresponding FRB sample from each unique sampling location for each sampling event. The methods require that the FRB be analyzed if there is a positive result for a PFAS analyte in a corresponding field sample. Based on further consideration, EPA is now providing laboratories with discretion as to whether they analyze every FRB sample proactively or only those associated with positive field sample results. This is with the understanding that laboratories must analyze field samples promptly enough such that the corresponding FRB analyses, if needed, may be completed within the prescribed hold time. Compliance with the method hold-time requirements, and other provisions of the methods, is a condition of maintaining laboratory approval. EPA is studying the possibility of extending the FRB hold times for EPA Method 537.1 and Method 533, and will communicate the results of the studies with the approved laboratories.

I. How will EPA support risk communication for UCMR 5 results?

EPA received comments requesting that the agency develop and provide risk communication materials to support interpretation and characterization of UCMR 5 results. EPA intends to publish a “reference concentration” summary document with available EPA health values; provide a template for PWSs to consider using in communicating with their customers about the detection of PFAS in drinking water; and provide other supporting material as risk-related information becomes available.

V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

Additional information about these statutes and Executive Orders can be found at http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/laws-and-executive-orders.

A. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review and Executive Order 13563: Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review

This action is a significant regulatory action that was submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review. Any changes made in response to OMB recommendations have been documented in the docket. A full analysis of potential costs associated with this action, the “Information Collection Request for the Final Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5),” (USEPA, 2021b) ICR Number 2040-0304, is also available in the docket (Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2020-0530). A summary of the ICR can be found in Section I.C of this preamble.

B. Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA)

The information collection activities in this final rule have been submitted for approval to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the PRA. The Information Collection Request (ICR) document (USEPA, 2021b) that EPA prepared has been assigned EPA ICR number ICR 2683.02. You can find a copy of the ICR in the docket for this final rule, and it is briefly summarized here. The information collection requirements are not enforceable until OMB approves them.

The information that EPA will collect under this final rule fulfills the statutory requirements of Section1445(a)(2) of SDWA, as amended in 1996, 2018, and 2019. The data will describe the source of the water, location, and test results for samples taken from public water systems (PWSs) as described in 40 CFR 141.35(e). The information collected will support EPA's decisions as to whether or not to regulate particular contaminants under SDWA. Reporting is mandatory. The data are not subject to confidentiality protection.

The 5-year UCMR 5 period spans 2022-2026. UCMR 5 sample collection begins in 2023 and continues through 2025. Since ICRs cannot be approved by OMB for a period longer than three years pursuant to 5 CFR 1320.10, the primary analysis in the ICR only covers the first three years of the UCMR 5 period ( i.e., 2022-2024). Prior to expiration of the initial UCMR 5 ICR, EPA will seek to extend the ICR and thus receive approval to collect information under the PRA in the remaining two years of the UCMR 5 period (2025-2026).

EPA received several comments regarding cost and burden of the proposed rule. Those comments recommended that EPA provide more accurate cost estimates. EPA's response is detailed more fully in the “Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” (USEPA, 2021i), which can be found in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

EPA has reviewed and, as appropriate, revised the cost and burden figures for UCMR 5; this includes using updated unit cost estimates for sample analysis. The annual burden and cost estimates described in this section are based on the implementation assumptions described in Section III of this preamble, among them the inclusion of all systems serving 3,300 to 10,000 people and a representative sample of smaller systems. As such, those estimates represent an upper bound. If EPA does not receive the necessary appropriations in one or more of the collections years—and thus collects data from fewer small systems—the actual costs would be lower than those estimated here. In general, burden hours were calculated by:

1. Determining the activities that PWSs and states would complete to comply with UCMR activity;

2. Estimating the number of hours per activity;

3. Estimating the number of respondents per activity; and

4. Multiplying the hours per activity by the number of respondents for that activity.

Respondents/affected entities: The respondents/affected entities are small PWSs (those serving 25 to 10,000 people); large PWSs (those serving 10,001 to 100,000 people); very large PWSs (those serving more than 100,000 people); and states.

Respondent's obligation to respond: Mandatory (40 CFR 141.35).

Estimated number of respondents: Respondents to UCMR 5 include 5,947 small PWSs, 4,364 large PWSs, and the 56 primacy agencies (50 States, one Tribal nation, and five Territories) for a total of 10,367 respondents.

Frequency of response: The frequency of response varies across respondents and years. Across the initial 3-year ICR period for UCMR 5, small PWSs will sample an average of 2.8 times per PWS ( i.e., number of responses per PWS); large PWSs will sample and report an average of 3.2 times per PWS; and very large PWSs will sample and report an average of 3.7 times per PWS.

Total estimated burden: 48,469 hours (per year). Burden is defined at 5 CFR 1320.3(b).

Total estimated cost: $9,404,007 annualized capital or operation & maintenance costs.

An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The OMB control numbers for the EPA's regulations in 40 CFR are listed in 40 CFR part 9. When OMB approves this ICR, the agency will announce that approval in the Federal Register and publish a technical amendment to 40 CFR part 9 to display the OMB control number for the approved information collection activities contained in this final rule.

C. Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA)

For purposes of assessing the impacts of this final rule on small entities, EPA considered small entities to be PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people. As required by the RFA, EPA proposed using this alternative definition in the Federal Register (63 FR 7606, February 13, 1998 (USEPA, 1998a)), sought public comment, consulted with the Small Business Administration (SBA) Office of Advocacy, and finalized the alternative definition in the Consumer Confidence Reports rulemaking (63 FR 44512, August 19, 1998 (USEPA, 1998b)). As stated in that document, the alternative definition applies to this regulation.

Exhibit 6—Number of Publicly- and Privately-Owned Small Systems Subject to UCMR 5 1
1 In the absence of appropriations to support monitoring at all PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people, EPA could instead include as few as 400 PWSs serving 25 to 3,299 people and 400 PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people (for a representative sample of 800 PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people).
2 PWS counts were adjusted to display as whole numbers in each size category.
System size (number of people served)Publicly-ownedPrivately-ownedTotal 2
Ground Water
500 and under42126168
501 to 3,300320121441
3,301 to 10,0002,3345412,875
Subtotal Ground Water2,6967883,484
Surface Water (and Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water)
500 and under91120
501 to 3,30012645171
3,301 to 10,0001,7625102,272
Subtotal Surface Water1,8975662,463
Total of Small Water Systems4,5931,3545,947

The basis for the UCMR 5 RFA certification is as follows: For the 5,947 small water systems that EPA anticipates will be affected, per the planned monitoring, the average annual cost for complying with this final rule represents an average of 0.02 percent of system revenues. The average yearly cost to small systems to comply with UCMR 5 over the 5-year period of 2022-2026, is approximately $0.3 million. EPA anticipates that approximately one third of the 5,947 small PWSs will collect samples in each of three years (2023, 2024, and 2025).

PWS costs are attributed to the labor required for reading about UCMR 5 requirements, monitoring, reporting, and record keeping. The estimated average annual burden across the 5-year UCMR 5 implementation period of 2022-2026 is 1.3 hours at $52 per small system. By assuming all costs for laboratory analyses, shipping and quality control for small entities, EPA incurs the entirety of the non-labor costs associated with UCMR 5 small system monitoring, or 96 percent of total small system testing costs. Exhibit 7 and Exhibit 8 of this preamble present the estimated economic impacts in the form of a revenue test for publicly- and privately-owned systems.

Exhibit 7—UCMR 5 Relative Cost Analysis for Small Publicly-Owned Systems [2022-2026] 1
System size (number of people served)Annual number of systems impacted 2Average annual hours per systemAverage annual cost per systemSBREFA criteria- revenue test 3 (%)
1 In the absence of appropriations to support monitoring at all PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people, EPA could instead include as few as 400 PWSs serving 25 to 3,299 people and 400 PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people (for a representative sample of 800 PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people).
2 PWS counts were adjusted to display as whole numbers in each size category. Includes the publicly-owned portion of small systems subject to UCMR 5.
3 Costs are presented as a percentage of median annual revenue for each size category.
Ground Water Systems
500 and under81.0$40.650.09
501 to 3,300641.143.370.02
3,301 to 10,0004671.349.920.01
Surface Water (and Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water) Systems
500 and under21.454.390.07
501 to 3,300251.456.190.02
3,301 to 10,0003531.557.390.004
Exhibit 8—UCMR 5 Relative Cost Analysis for Small Privately-Owned Systems [2022-2026] 1
System size (number of people served)Annual number of systems impacted 2Average annual hours per systemAverage annual cost per systemSBREFA criteria- revenue test 3 (%)
1 In the absence of appropriations to support monitoring at all PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people, EPA could instead include as few as 400 PWSs serving 25 to 3,299 people and 400 PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people (for a representative sample of 800 PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people).
2 PWS counts were adjusted to display as whole numbers in each size category. Includes the privately-owned portion of small systems subject to UCMR 5.
3 Costs are presented as a percentage of median annual revenue for each size category.
Ground Water Systems
500 and under251.0$40.650.48
501 to 3,300241.1$43.370.03
3,301 to 10,0001081.3$49.920.004
Surface Water (and Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water) Systems
500 and under21.4$54.390.11
501 to 3,30091.4$56.190.02
3,301 to 10,0001021.5$57.390.004

Up to 9.4 percent of all small systems ( i.e., up to 5,947 small PWSs serving 25 to 10,000 people) will participate in UCMR 5 if EPA receives the necessary appropriations to support its plan. EPA has determined that participating small systems will experience an average impact of 0.02 percent of revenues. This accounts for small PWSs familiarizing themselves with the regulatory requirements; reading sampling instructions; traveling to the sampling location; collecting and shipping the samples; and maintaining their records. The 5,947 small PWSs are comprised of all 5,147 systems serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people, and the representative group of 800 systems serving between 25 and 3,299 people; the remainder of small systems will not participate in UCMR 5 monitoring and will not be impacted.

I certify that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the RFA. The small entities subject to the requirements of this action along with a description of the very minor impacts are previously addressed in this section. Although this final rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, EPA has attempted to reduce impacts by assuming all costs for analyses of the samples, and for shipping the samples from small systems to laboratories contracted by EPA to analyze the UCMR 5 samples (the cost of shipping is included in the cost of each analytical method). EPA has historically set aside $2.0 million each year from the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) with its authority to use DWSRF monies for the purposes of implementing this provision of SDWA. EPA anticipates drawing on these and additional funds, if available, to implement the plan and carry out the expanded UCMR monitoring approach outlined in AWIA. We have therefore concluded that this action will have no significant impact on any directly regulated small entities.

D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA)

This action does not contain an unfunded mandate of $100 million or more as described in UMRA, 2 U.S.C. 1531-1538, and does not significantly or uniquely affect small governments. The action implements mandate(s) specifically and explicitly set forth in SDWA Section 1445(a)(2), Monitoring Program for Unregulated Contaminants.

E. Executive Order 13132: Federalism

This action does not have federalism implications. It will not have substantial direct effects on the states, on the relationship between the national government and the states, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government.

F. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments

This action has Tribal implications. However, it will neither impose substantial direct compliance costs on federally recognized Tribal governments, nor preempt Tribal law. As described previously in this document, this final rule requires monitoring by all large PWSs. Information in the SDWIS/Fed water system inventory indicates there are approximately 27 large Tribal PWSs (serving 10,001 to 40,000 people). EPA estimates the average annual cost to each of these large PWSs, over the 5-year rule period, to be $1,783. This cost is based on a labor component (associated with the collection of samples), and a non-labor component (associated with shipping and laboratory fees). As planned, UCMR 5 is expected to also require monitoring by all small PWSs serving 3,300 to 10,000 people and a nationally representative sample of small PWSs serving 25 to 3,299 people. Information in the SDWIS/Fed water system inventory indicates there are approximately 75 small Tribal PWSs (serving 3,300 to 10,000 people). EPA estimates that less than 2 percent of small Tribal systems serving 25 to 3,299 people will be selected as part of the nationally representative sample. EPA estimates the average annual cost to small Tribal systems over the 5-year rule period to be $52. Such cost is based on the labor associated with collecting a sample and preparing it for shipping. All other small-PWS expenses (associated with shipping and laboratory fees) are paid by EPA.

EPA consulted with Tribal officials under the EPA Policy on Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribes early in the process of developing this regulation to permit them to have meaningful and timely input into its development. A summary of that consultation, titled, “Summary of the Tribal Coordination and Consultation Process for the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” is provided in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

As required by section 7(a), the EPA's Tribal Consultation Official has certified that the requirements of the executive order have been met in a meaningful and timely manner. A copy of the certification is included in the docket for this action.

G. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks

EPA interprets Executive Order 13045 as applying only to those regulatory actions that concern environmental health or safety risks that EPA has reason to believe may disproportionately affect children, per the definition of “covered regulatory action” in section 2-202 of the Executive Order. This action is not subject to Executive Order 13045 because it does not concern such an environmental health risk or safety risk.

H. Executive Order 13211: Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution or Use

This action is not a “significant energy action” because it is not likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution or use of energy and has not otherwise been designated by the Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs as a significant energy action. This is a national drinking water occurrence study that was submitted to OMB for review.

I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA)

This action involves technical standards. EPA has identified options that involve using analytical methods developed by the agency and three major voluntary consensus method organizations to support UCMR 5 monitoring. The voluntary consensus method organizations are Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, and ASTM International. EPA identified acceptable consensus method organization standards for the analysis of lithium. A summary of each method along with how the method specifically applies to UCMR 5 can be found in Section III.I of this preamble.

All of these standards are reasonably available for public use. EPA methods are free for download on the agency's website. The methods in the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 23rd edition are consensus standards, available for purchase from the publisher, and are commonly used by the drinking water laboratory community. The methods in the Standard Methods Online are consensus standards, available for purchase from the publisher's website, and are commonly used by the drinking water laboratory community. The methods from ASTM International are consensus standards, are available for purchase from the publisher's website, and are commonly used by the drinking water laboratory community.

J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

EPA believes that this action is not subject to Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994) because it does not establish an environmental health or safety standard. Background information regarding EPA's consideration of Executive Order 12898 in the development of this final rule is provided in Section III.F of this preamble, and an additional supporting document, titled, “Summary of Environmental Justice Considerations for the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal,” has been placed in the electronic docket listed in the ADDRESSES section of this preamble.

K. Congressional Review Act (CRA)

This action is subject to the CRA, and EPA will submit a rule report to each House of the Congress and to the Comptroller General of the United States. This action is not a “major rule” as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).

VI. References

(i) ASDWA. 2013. Insufficient Resources for State Drinking Water Programs Threaten Public Health: An Analysis of State Drinking Water Programs' Resources and Needs. December 2013. Available at https://www.asdwa.org/asdwa-reports/.

(ii) ASTM. 2020. ASTM D1976-20— Standard Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428. Approved May 1, 2020. Available for purchase at https://www.astm.org/Standards/D1976.htm.

(iii) California DHS. 2002. California Department of Health Services. Determination of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane in Drinking Water by Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Division of Drinking Water and Environmental Management, Sanitation and Radiation Laboratories Branch, Berkeley, CA. Available at https://www.waterboards.ca.gov/drinking_water/certlic/drinkingwater/documents/123-tcp/tcp_by_pt_gcms.pdf.

(iv) Settlement Agreement, Waterkeeper Alliance, Inc. v. U.S. EPA, No. 1:19-cv-00899-LJL (S.D.N.Y. Jun. 1, 2020).

(v) SM. 2017. 3120B—Metals by Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (2017): Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Method. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 23rd edition. American Public Health Association, 800 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20001-3710.

(vi) SM Online. 1999. 3120B-99—Metals by Plasma Emission Spectroscopy: Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Method (Editorial Revisions, 2020). Standard Methods Online. Available for purchase at http://www.standardmethods.org.

(vii) USEPA. 1989. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Filtration, Disinfection; Turbidity, Giardia lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; Final Rule.Federal Register . Vol. 54, No. 124, p. 27486, June 29, 1989.

(viii) USEPA. 1994. EPA Method 200.7—Determination of Metals and Trace Elements in Water and Wastes by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry, Revision 4.4. Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH. Available at https://www.epa.gov/esam/method-2007-determination-metals-and-trace-elements-water-and-wastes-inductively-coupled-plasma.

(ix) USEPA. 1998a. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Consumer Confidence Reports; Proposed Rule. Federal Register . Vol. 63, No. 30, p. 7606, February 13, 1998.

(x) USEPA. 1998b. National Primary Drinking Water Regulation: Consumer Confidence Reports; Final Rule. Federal Register . Vol. 63, No. 160, p. 44512, August 19, 1998.

(xi) USEPA. 2010. Technical Basis for the Lowest Concentration Minimum Reporting Level (LCMRL) Calculator. EPA 815-R-11-001. Office of Water. December 2010. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods.

(xii) USEPA. 2011. Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final Report). U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/052F. Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. September 2011. Available at https://www.epa.gov/expobox/about-exposure-factors-handbook.

(xiii) USEPA. 2012. Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems; Final Rule. Federal Register . Vol. 77, No. 85, p. 26072, May 2, 2012.

(xiv) USEPA. 2016. Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 4) for Public Water Systems and Announcement of Public Meeting. Federal Register . Vol. 81, No. 244, p. 92666, December 20, 2016.

(xv) USEPA. 2017. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards and Request for Public Comment and/or Information on Related Issues. Federal Register . Vol. 82, No. 7, p. 3518, January 11, 2017.

(xvi) USEPA. 2018. Method Development for Unregulated Contaminants in Drinking Water: Public Meeting and Webinar. EPA 815-A-18-001. Office of Water. June 2018. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods.

(xvii) USEPA. 2019a. Development of the Proposed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule for the Fifth Monitoring Cycle (UCMR 5). Presentation Slides. EPA 815-A-19-001. Office of Water. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr/unregulated-contaminant-monitoring-rule-ucmr-meetings-and-materials.

(xviii) USEPA. 2019b. EPA Method 533—Determination of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water by Isotope Dilution Anion Exchange Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry. EPA 815-B-19-020. Office of Water, Cincinnati, OH. November 2019. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods.

(xix) USEPA. 2019c. Appendix C: 1,2,3-Trichloropropane in Regulatory Determination 4 Support Document for Selected Contaminants from the Fourth Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA 815-R-19-006. Docket ID EPA-HQ-OW-2019-0583. Available at https://www.regulations.gov.

(xx) USEPA. 2020. EPA Method 537.1—Determination of Selected Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Version 2.0. EPA/600/R-20/006. Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH. March 2020. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods.

(xxii) USEPA. 2021a. Selection of Nationally Representative Public Water Systems for the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule: 2021 Update. EPA 815-B-21-012. Office of Water. December 2021.

(xxiii) USEPA. 2021b. Information Collection Request for the Final Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5). EPA 815-B-21-008. Office of Water. December 2021.

(xxiv) USEPA. 2021c. Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule for the Fifth Monitoring Cycle (UCMR 5): Public Meeting and Webinar. Presentation Slides. EPA 815-A-21-001. Office of Water. April 2021. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr/unregulated-contaminant-monitoring-rule-ucmr-meetings-and-materials.

(xxv) USEPA. 2021d. Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 5—Draft. Federal Register . Vol. 86, No. 135 p. 37948, July 19, 2021.

(xxvi) USEPA. 2021e. Information Compendium for Contaminants for the Final Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5). EPA 815-B-21-009. Office of Water. December 2021.

(xxvii) USEPA. 2021f. UCMR 5 Laboratory Approval Manual. EPA 815-B-21-010. Office of Water. December 2021.

(xxviii) USEPA. 2021g. Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule for Public Water Systems and Announcement of Public Meeting; Proposed Rule and Notice of Public Meeting. Federal Register . Vol. 86, No. 46, p. 13846, March 11, 2021.

(xxix) USEPA. 2021h. Revisions to 40 CFR 141.35 and 141.40. EPA 815-B-21-011. Office of Water. December 2021. Available in EPA's public docket (under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2020-0530) at https://www.regulations.gov.

(xxx) USEPA. 2021i. Response to Comments on the Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) Proposal. EPA 815-R-21-008. Office of Water. December 2021.

(xxi) USEPA. 2021j. Instructions for Preparing a Ground Water Representative Monitoring Plan for the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. EPA 815-B-21-013. Office of Water. December 2021.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 141

Environmental protection, Chemicals, Incorporation by reference, Indian—lands, Intergovernmental relations, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Water supply.

Michael S. Regan,

Administrator.

For the reasons set forth in the preamble, EPA amends 40 CFR part 141 as follows:

PART 141—NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS

1. The authority citation for part 141 continues to read as follows:

Authority:

42 U.S.C. 300f, 300g-1, 300g-2, 300g-3, 300g-4, 300g-5, 300g-6, 300j-4, 300j-9, and 300j-11.

Subpart D—Reporting and Recordkeeping

2. Amend §141.35 as follows:

a. In paragraph (a), revise the fourth sentence;

b. In paragraph (c)(1), remove the text “December 31, 2017” and add, in its place the text “December 31, 2022”;

c. Revise paragraphs (c)(2), (c)(3)(i) through (iii), (c)(4), (c)(5)(i), and (c)(6)(ii);

d. In paragraph (d)(2), revise the first, second, and third sentences; and

f. Revise paragraph (e).

The revisions read as follows:

§141.35 Reporting for unregulated contaminant monitoring results.

(a) * * * For the purposes of this section, PWS “population served” is the retail population served directly by the PWS as reported to the Federal Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS/Fed). * * *

* * * * *

(c) * * *

(2) Sampling location inventory information. You must provide your inventory information by December 31, 2022, using EPA's electronic data reporting system, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. You must submit, verify, or update data elements 1-9 (as defined in Table 1 of paragraph (e) of this section) for each sampling location, or for each approved representative sampling location (as specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section) regarding representative sampling locations. If this information changes, you must report updates, including new sources, and sampling locations that are put in use before or during the UCMR sampling period, to EPA's electronic data reporting system within 30 days of the change.

(3) * * *

(i) Qualifications. Large PWSs that have EPA- or State-approved representative EPTDS sampling locations from a previous UCMR cycle, or as provided for under 40 CFR 141.23(a)(1), 40 CFR 141.24(f)(1), or 40 CFR 141.24(h)(1), may submit a copy of documentation from your State or EPA that approves your representative sampling plan. PWSs that do not have an approved representative EPTDS sampling plan may submit a proposal to sample at representative EPTDS(s) rather than at each individual EPTDS if: You use ground water as a source; all of your well sources have either the same treatment or no treatment; and you have multiple EPTDSs from the same source ( i.e., same aquifer). You must submit a copy of the existing or proposed representative EPTDS sampling plan, as appropriate, at least six months prior to your scheduled sample collection, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If changes to your inventory that impact your representative plan occur before or during the UCMR sampling period, you must report updates within 30 days of the change.

(ii) Demonstration. If you are submitting a proposal to sample at representative EPTDS(s) rather than at each individual EPTDS, you must demonstrate that any EPTDS that you propose as representative of multiple wells is associated with a well that draws from the same aquifer as the wells it will represent. The proposed well must be representative of the highest annual volume and most consistently active wells in the representative array. If that representative well is not in use at the scheduled sampling time, you must select and sample an alternative representative well. You must submit the information defined in Table 1, paragraph (e) of this section for each proposed representative sampling location. You must also include documentation to support your proposal that the specified wells are representative of other wells. This documentation can include system-maintained well logs or construction drawings indicating that the representative well(s) is/are at a representative depth, and details of well casings and grouting; data demonstrating relative homogeneity of water quality constituents ( e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, iron, manganese) in samples drawn from each well; and data showing that your wells are located in a limited geographic area ( e.g., all wells within a 0.5 mile radius) and/or, if available, the hydrogeologic data indicating the ground water travel time between the representative well and each of the individual wells it represents ( e.g., all wells within a five-year time of travel delineation). Your proposal must be sent in writing to EPA, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(iii) Approval. EPA or the State (as specified in the Partnership Agreement reached between the State and EPA) will review your proposal and coordinate any necessary changes with you. Your plan will not be final until you receive written approval from EPA, identifying the final list of EPTDSs where you will be required to monitor.

(4) Contacting EPA if your PWS has not been notified of requirements. If you believe you are subject to UCMR requirements, as defined in 40 CFR 141.40(a)(1) and (a)(2)(i), and you have not been contacted by either EPA or your State by April 26, 2022, you must send a letter to EPA, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The letter must be from your PWS Official and must include an explanation as to why the UCMR requirements are applicable to your system along with the appropriate contact information. A copy of the letter must also be submitted to the State as directed by the State. EPA will make an applicability determination based on your letter, and in consultation with the State when necessary and will notify you regarding your applicability status and required sampling schedule. However, if your PWS meets the applicability criteria specified in 40 CFR 141.40(a)(2)(i), you are subject to the UCMR monitoring and reporting requirements, regardless of whether you have been contacted by the State or EPA.

(5) * * *

(i) General rescheduling notification requirements. Large systems may independently change their monitoring schedules up to December 31, 2022, using EPA's electronic data reporting system, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. After this date has passed, if your PWS cannot sample according to your assigned sampling schedule ( e.g., because of budget constraints, or if a sampling location will be closed during the scheduled month of monitoring), you must mail or email a letter to EPA, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, prior to the scheduled sampling date. You must include an explanation of why the samples cannot be taken according to the assigned schedule, and you must provide the alternative schedule you are requesting. You must not reschedule monitoring specifically to avoid sample collection during a suspected vulnerable period. You are subject to your assigned UCMR sampling schedule or the schedule that you revised on or before December 31, 2022, unless and until you receive a letter from EPA specifying a new schedule.

* * * * *

(6) * * *

(ii) Reporting schedule. You must require your laboratory, on your behalf, to post and approve the data in EPA's electronic data reporting system, accessible at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr, for your review within 90 days from the sample collection date (sample collection must occur as specified in 40 CFR 141.40(a)(4)). You then have 30 days from when the laboratory posts and approves your data to review, approve, and submit the data to the State and EPA via the agency's electronic data reporting system. If you do not electronically approve and submit the laboratory data to EPA within 30 days of the laboratory posting approved data, the data will be considered approved by you and available for State and EPA review.

* * * * *

(d) * * *

(2) Sampling location inventory information. You must provide your inventory information by December 31, 2022, using EPA's electronic data reporting system, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If this information changes, you must report updates, including new sources, and sampling locations that are put in use before or during the UCMR sampling period, to EPA's electronic data reporting system within 30 days of the change, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. * * *

(e) Data elements. Table 1 defines the data elements that must be provided for UCMR monitoring.

Table 1 to Paragraph (e)—Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Reporting Requirements
Data elementDefinition
1. Public Water System Identification (PWSID) CodeThe code used to identify each PWS. The code begins with the standard 2-character postal State abbreviation or Region code; the remaining 7 numbers are unique to each PWS in the State. The same identification code must be used to represent the PWS identification for all current and future UCMR monitoring.
2. Public Water System NameUnique name, assigned once by the PWS.
3. Public Water System Facility Identification CodeAn identification code established by the State or, at the State's discretion, by the PWS, following the format of a 5-digit number unique within each PWS for each applicable facility (i.e., for each source of water, treatment plant, distribution system, or any other facility associated with water treatment or delivery). The same identification code must be used to represent the facility for all current and future UCMR monitoring.
4. Public Water System Facility NameUnique name, assigned once by the PWS, for every facility ID ( e.g., Treatment Plant).
5. Public Water System Facility TypeThat code that identifies that type of facility as either: CC = Consecutive connection. SS = Sampling station. TP = Treatment plant. OT = Other.
6. Water Source TypeThe type of source water that supplies a water system facility. Systems must report one of the following codes for each sampling location:
SW = Surface water (to be reported for water facilities that are served entirely by a surface water source during the 12-month period).
GU = Ground water under the direct influence of surface water (to be reported for water facilities that are served all or in part by ground water under the direct influence of surface water at any time during the 12-month sampling period), and are not served at all by surface water during this period.
MX = Mixed water (to be reported for water facilities that are served by a mix of surface water, ground water, and/or ground water under the direct influence of surface water during the 12-month period).
GW = Ground water (to be reported for water facilities that are served entirely by a ground water source during the 12-month period).
7. Sampling Point Identification CodeAn identification code established by the State, or at the State's discretion, by the PWS, that uniquely identifies each sampling point. Each sampling code must be unique within each applicable facility, for each applicable sampling location (i.e ., entry point to the distribution system). The same identification code must be used to represent the sampling location for all current and future UCMR monitoring.
8. Sampling Point NameUnique sample point name, assigned once by the PWS, for every sample point ID ( e.g., Entry Point).
9. Sampling Point Type CodeA code that identifies the location of the sampling point as: EP = Entry point to the distribution system.
10. Disinfectant TypeAll of the disinfectants/oxidants that have been added prior to and at the entry point to the distribution system. Please select all that apply:
PEMB = Permanganate.
HPXB = Hydrogen peroxide.
CLGA = Gaseous chlorine.
CLOF = Offsite generated hypochlorite (stored as a liquid form).
CLON = Onsite generated hypochlorite.
CAGC = Chloramine (formed with gaseous chlorine).
CAOF = Chloramine (formed with offsite hypochlorite).
CAON = Chloramine (formed with onsite hypochlorite).
CLDB = Chlorine dioxide.
OZON = Ozone.
ULVL = Ultraviolet light.
OTHD = All other types of disinfectant/oxidant.
NODU = No disinfectant/oxidant used.
11. Treatment InformationTreatment information associated with the sample point. Please select all that apply.
CON = Conventional (non-softening, consisting of at least coagulation/sedimentation basins and filtration).
SFN = Softening.
RBF = River bank filtration.
PSD = Pre-sedimentation.
INF = In-line filtration.
DFL = Direct filtration.
SSF = Slow sand filtration.
BIO = Biological filtration (operated with an intention of maintaining biological activity within filter).
UTR = Unfiltered treatment for surface water source.
GWD = Groundwater system with disinfection only.
PAC = Application of powder activated carbon.
GAC = Granular activated carbon adsorption (not part of filters in CON, SFN, INF, DFL, or SSF).
AIR = Air stripping (packed towers, diffused gas contactors).
POB = Pre-oxidation with chlorine (applied before coagulation for CON or SFN plants or before filtration for other filtration plants).
MFL = Membrane filtration.
IEX = Ionic exchange.
DAF = Dissolved air floatation.
CWL = Clear well/finished water storage without aeration.
CWA = Clear well/finished water storage with aeration.
ADS = Aeration in distribution system (localized treatment).
OTH = All other types of treatment.
NTU = No treatment used.
DKN = Do not know.
12. Sample Collection DateThe date the sample is collected, reported as 4-digit year, 2-digit month, and 2-digit day (YYYYMMDD).
13. Sample Identification CodeAn alphanumeric value up to 30 characters assigned by the laboratory to uniquely identify containers, or groups of containers, containing water samples collected at the same sampling location for the same sampling date.
14. ContaminantThe unregulated contaminant for which the sample is being analyzed.
15. Analytical Method CodeThe identification code of the analytical method used.
16. Extraction Batch Identification CodeLaboratory assigned extraction batch ID. Must be unique for each extraction batch within the laboratory for each method. For CCC samples report the Analysis Batch Identification Code as the value for this field. For methods without an extraction batch, leave this field null.
17. Extraction DateDate for the start of the extraction batch (YYYYMMDD). For methods without an extraction batch, leave this field null.
18. Analysis Batch Identification CodeLaboratory assigned analysis batch ID. Must be unique for each analysis batch within the laboratory for each method.
19. Analysis DateDate for the start of the analysis batch (YYYYMMDD).
20. Sample Analysis TypeThe type of sample collected and/or prepared, as well as the fortification level. Permitted values include: CCCL = MRL level continuing calibration check; a calibration standard containing the contaminant, the internal standard, and surrogate analyzed to verify the existing calibration for those contaminants.
CCCM = Medium level continuing calibration check; a calibration standard containing the contaminant, the internal standard, and surrogate analyzed to verify the existing calibration for those contaminants.
CCCH = High level continuing calibration check; a calibration standard containing the contaminant, the internal standard, and surrogate analyzed to verify the existing calibration for those contaminants.
FS = Field sample; sample collected and submitted for analysis under this final rule.
LFB = Laboratory fortified blank; an aliquot of reagent water fortified with known quantities of the contaminants and all preservation compounds.
LRB = Laboratory reagent blank; an aliquot of reagent water treated exactly as a field sample, including the addition of preservatives, internal standards, and surrogates to determine if interferences are present in the laboratory, reagents, or other equipment.
LFSM = Laboratory fortified sample matrix; a UCMR field sample with a known amount of the contaminant of interest and all preservation compounds added.
LFSMD = Laboratory fortified sample matrix duplicate; duplicate of the laboratory fortified sample matrix.
QCS = Quality control sample; a sample prepared with a source external to the one used for initial calibration and CCC. The QCS is used to check calibration standard integrity.
FRB = Field reagent blank; an aliquot of reagent water treated as a sample including exposure to sampling conditions to determine if interferences or contamination are present from sample collection through analysis.
21. Analytical Result—SignA value indicating whether the sample analysis result was: (<) “less than” means the contaminant was not detected, or was detected at a level below the Minimum Reporting Level. (=) “equal to” means the contaminant was detected at the level reported in “Analytical Result— Measured Value.”
22. Analytical Result—Measured ValueThe actual numeric value of the analytical results for: Field samples; laboratory fortified matrix samples; laboratory fortified sample matrix duplicates; and concentration fortified.
23. Additional ValueRepresents the true value or the fortified concentration for spiked samples for QC Sample Analysis Types (CCCL, CCCM, CCCH, QCS, LFB, LFSM, and LFSMD).
24. Laboratory Identification CodeThe code, assigned by EPA, used to identify each laboratory. The code begins with the standard two-character State postal abbreviation; the remaining five numbers are unique to each laboratory in the State.
25. Sample Event CodeA code assigned by the PWS for each sample event. This will associate samples with the PWS monitoring plan to allow EPA to track compliance and completeness. Systems must assign the following codes:
SE1, SE2, SE3, and SE4—Represent samples collected to meet UCMR Assessment Monitoring requirements; where “SE1” and “SE2” represent the first and second sampling period for all water types; and “SE3” and “SE4” represent the third and fourth sampling period for SW, GU, and MX sources only.
26. Historical Information for Contaminant Detections and TreatmentA yes or no answer provided by the PWS for each entry point to the distribution system. Question: Have you tested for the contaminant in your drinking water in the past? YES = If yes, did you modify your treatment and if so, what types of treatment did you implement? Select all that apply.
PAC = Application of powder activated carbon.
GAC = Granular activated carbon adsorption (not part of filters in CON, SFN, INF, DFL, or SSF).
IEX = Ionic exchange.
NRO = Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.
OZN = Ozone.
BAC = Biologically active carbon.
MFL = Membrane filtration.
UVL = Ultraviolet light.
OTH = Other.
NMT = Not modified after testing.
NO = Have never tested for the contaminant.
DK = Do not know.
27. Potential PFAS SourcesA yes or no answer provided by the PWS for each entry point to the distribution system. Question: Are you aware of any potential current and/or historical sources of PFAS that may have impacted the drinking water sources at your water system?
YES = If yes, select all that apply:
MB = Military base.
FT = Firefighting training school.
AO = Airport operations.
CW = Car wash or industrial launderers.
PS = Public safety activities ( e.g., fire and rescue services).
WM = Waste management.
HW = Hazardous waste collection, treatment, and disposal.
UW = Underground injection well.
SC = Solid waste collection, combustors, incinerators.
MF = Manufacturing.
FP = Food packaging.
TA = Textile and apparel ( e.g., stain- and water-resistant, fiber/thread, carpet, house furnishings, leather).
PP = Paper.
CC = Chemical.
PR = Plastics and rubber products.
MM = Machinery.
CE = Computer and electronic products.
FM = Fabricated metal products (e.g., nonstick cookware).
PC = Petroleum and coal products.
FF = Furniture.
OG = Oil and gas production.
UT = Utilities (e.g ., sewage treatment facilities).
CT = Construction (e.g ., wood floor finishing, electrostatic painting).
OT = Other.
NO = Not aware of any potential current and/or historical sources.
DK = Do not know.

Subpart E—Special Regulations, Including Monitoring Regulations and Prohibition on Lead Use

3. Amend §141.40 as follows:

a. In paragraph (a) introductory text, remove the text “December 31, 2015” and add in its place the text “February 1, 2021 or subsequent corrections from the State”;

b. Revise paragraphs (a)(2)(ii) introductory text, (a)(2)(ii)(A), and (a)(3);

c. In paragraph (a)(4)(i) introductory text, remove the text “December 31, 2017” and add in its place the text “December 31, 2022”;

d. Revise paragraphs (a)(4)(i)(A) through (C), (a)(4)(ii) introductory text, and the first sentence in paragraph (a)(4)(ii)(A);

e. Remove paragraph (a)(4)(iii);

f. In paragraph (a)(5)(ii), revise the fifth and sixth sentences;

g. Revise paragraph (a)(5)(iii) introductory text;

h. Remove and reserve paragraph (a)(5)(iv); and

i. Revise paragraphs (a)(5)(v) and (vi) and paragraph (c).

The revisions read as follows:

§141.40 Monitoring requirements for unregulated contaminants.

(a) * * *

(2) * * *

(ii) Small systems. EPA will provide sample containers, provide pre-paid air bills for shipping the sampling materials, conduct the laboratory analysis, and report and review monitoring results for all small systems selected to conduct monitoring under paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(A) through (C) of this section. If you own or operate a PWS (other than a transient non-community water system) that serves a retail population of 10,000 or fewer people and you are notified of monitoring requirements by the State or EPA, you must monitor as follows:

(A) Assessment Monitoring. You must monitor for the contaminants on List 1 per table 1 to paragraph (a)(3) if you are notified by your State or EPA that you are part of the State Monitoring Plan for Assessment Monitoring.

* * * * *

(3) Analytes to be monitored. Lists 1, 2, and 3 contaminants are provided in table 1 to paragraph (a)(3):

Table 1 to Paragraph(a)(3)—UCMR Contaminant List
1—Contaminant2—CASRN3—Analytical methods a4—Minimum reporting level b5—Sampling location c6—Period during which sample collection to be completed
Column headings are:
1—Contaminant: The name of the contaminant to be analyzed.
2—CASRN (Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number) or Identification Number: A unique number identifying the chemical contaminants.
3—Analytical Methods: Method numbers identifying the methods that must be used to test the contaminants.
4—Minimum Reporting Level (MRL): The value and unit of measure at or above which the concentration of the contaminant must be measured using the approved analytical methods. If EPA determines, after the first six months of monitoring that the specified MRLs result in excessive resampling, EPA will establish alternate MRLs and will notify affected PWSs and laboratories of the new MRLs. N/A is defined as non-applicable.
5—Sampling Location: The locations within a PWS at which samples must be collected.
6—Period During Which Sample Collection to be Completed: The time period during which the sampling and testing will occur for the indicated contaminant.
a The analytical procedures shall be performed in accordance with the documents associated with each method, see paragraph (c) of this section.
b The MRL is the minimum concentration of each analyte that must be reported to EPA.
c Sampling must occur at your PWS's entry points to the distribution system (EPTDSs), after treatment is applied, that represent each non-emergency water source in routine use over the 12-month period of monitoring. Systems that purchase water with multiple connections from the same wholesaler may select one representative connection from that wholesaler. The representative EPTDS must be a location within the purchaser's water system. This EPTDS sampling location must be representative of the highest annual volume connections. If the connection selected as the representative EPTDS is not available for sampling, an alternate highest volume representative connection must be sampled. See 40 CFR 141.35(c)(3) for an explanation of the requirements related to the use of representative GW EPTDSs.
List 1: Assessment Monitoring
Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
11-chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic acid (11Cl-PF3OUdS)763051-92-9EPA 5330.005 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (8:2 FTS)39108-34-4EPA 5330.005 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (4:2 FTS)757124-72-4EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS)27619-97-2EPA 5330.005 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoic acid (ADONA)919005-14-4EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanone-1-sulfonic acid (9Cl-PF3ONS)756426-58-1EPA 5330.002 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) (GenX)13252-13-6EPA 5330.005 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
nonafluoro‐3,6‐dioxaheptanoic acid (NFDHA)151772-58-6EPA 5330.02 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluoro (2‐ethoxyethane) sulfonic acid (PFEESA)113507-82-7EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluoro‐3‐methoxypropanoic acid (PFMPA)377-73-1EPA 5330.004 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluoro‐4‐methoxybutanoic acid (PFMBA)863090-89-5EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS)375-73-5EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA)375-22-4EPA 5330.005 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)335-76-2EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)307-55-1EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS)375-92-8EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA)375-85-9EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)355-46-4EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA)307-24-4EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)375-95-1EPA 5330.004 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS)1763-23-1EPA 5330.004 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)335-67-1EPA 5330.004 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS)2706-91-4EPA 5330.004 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA)2706-90-3EPA 5330.003 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA)2058-94-8EPA 5330.002 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
n-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid (NEtFOSAA)2991-50-6EPA 537.10.005 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
n-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid (NMeFOSAA)2355-31-9EPA 537.10.006 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA)376-06-7EPA 537.10.008 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA)72629-94-8EPA 537.10.007 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
Metal/Pharmaceutical
Lithium7439-93-2EPA 200.7, SM 3120 B, ASTM D1976-209 µg/LEPTDS1/1/2023-12/31/2025
List 2: Screening Survey
ReservedReservedReservedReservedReservedReserved
List 3: Pre-Screen Testing
ReservedReservedReservedReservedReservedReserved

(4) * * *

(i) * * *

(A) Sample collection period. You must collect the samples in one continuous 12-month period for List 1 Assessment Monitoring, and, if applicable, for List 2 Screening Survey, or List 3 Pre-Screen Testing, during the timeframe indicated in column 6 of table 1 to paragraph (a)(3) of this section. EPA or your State will specify the month(s) and year(s) in which your monitoring must occur. As specified in 40 CFR 141.35(c)(5), you must contact EPA if you believe you cannot collect samples according to your schedule.

(B) Frequency. You must collect the samples within the timeframe and according to the frequency specified by contaminant type and water source type for each sampling location, as specified in table 2 to this paragraph (a)(4)(i)(B). For the second or subsequent round of sampling, if a sample location is non-operational for more than one month before and one month after the scheduled sampling month ( i.e., it is not possible for you to sample within the window specified in table 2), you must notify EPA as specified in 40 CFR 141.35(c)(5) to reschedule your sampling.

Table 2 to Paragraph ( )(4)( )(B)—Monitoring Frequency by Contaminant and Water Source Types
Contaminant typeWater source typeTimeframeFrequency 1
1 Systems must assign a sample event code for each contaminant listed in Table 1. Sample event codes must be assigned by the PWS for each sample event. For more information on sample event codes see 40 CFR 141.35(e) Table 1.
List 1 ContaminantsSurface water, Mixed, or GWUDI12 monthsYou must monitor for four consecutive quarters. Sample events must occur three months apart. (Example: If first monitoring is in January, the second monitoring must occur any time in April, the third any time in July, and the fourth any time in October).
Ground water12 monthsYou must monitor twice in a consecutive 12-month period. Sample events must occur 5-7 months apart. (Example: If the first monitoring event is in April, the second monitoring event must occur any time in September, October, or November.)

(C) Location. You must collect samples for each List 1 Assessment Monitoring contaminant, and, if applicable, for each List 2 Screening Survey, or List 3 Pre-Screen Testing contaminant, as specified in table 1 to paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Samples must be collected at each sample point that is specified in column 5 and footnote c of table 1 to paragraph (a)(3) of this section. If you are a GW system with multiple EPTDSs, and you request and receive approval from EPA or the State for sampling at representative EPTDS(s), as specified in 40 CFR 141.35(c)(3), you must collect your samples from the approved representative sampling location(s).

* * * * *

(ii) Small systems. If you serve a population of 10,000 or fewer people and are notified that you are part of the State Monitoring Plan, you must comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (a)(4)(ii)(A) through (H) of this section. If EPA or the State informs you that they will be collecting your UCMR samples, you must assist them in identifying the appropriate sampling locations and in collecting the samples.

(A) Sample collection and frequency. You must collect samples at the times specified for you by the State or EPA. Your schedule must follow both the timing of monitoring specified in table 1 to paragraph (a)(3) of this section, List 1, and, if applicable, List 2, or List 3, and the frequency of monitoring in table 2 to paragraph (a)(4)(i)(B) of this section.

* * * * *

(5) * * *

(ii) * * * To participate in the UCMR Laboratory Approval Program, the laboratory must register and complete the necessary application materials by August 1, 2022. Correspondence must be addressed to: UCMR Laboratory Approval Coordinator, USEPA, Technical Support Center, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, (MS 140), Cincinnati, Ohio 45268; or emailed to EPA at: UCMR_Lab_Approval@epa.gov.

(iii) Minimum Reporting Level. The MRL is defined by EPA as the quantitation limit achievable, with 95 percent confidence, by 75 percent of laboratories nationwide, assuming the use of good instrumentation and experienced analysts.

* * * * *

(v) Method defined quality control. You must ensure that your laboratory analyzes Laboratory Fortified Blanks and conducts Laboratory Performance Checks, as appropriate to the method's requirements, for those methods listed in column 3 in table 1 to paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Each method specifies acceptance criteria for these QC checks.

(vi) Reporting. You must require your laboratory, on your behalf, to post and approve these data in EPA's electronic data reporting system, accessible at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr, for your review within 90 days from the sample collection date. You then have 30 days from when the laboratory posts and approves your data to review, approve, and submit the data to the State and EPA, via the agency's electronic data reporting system. If you do not electronically approve and submit the laboratory data to EPA within 30 days of the laboratory posting approved data, the data will be considered approved by you and available for State and EPA review.

* * * * *

(c) Incorporation by reference. The standards required in this section are incorporated by reference into this section with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. All approved material is available for inspection at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Docket, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20004, (202) 566-1744, email Docket-customerservice@epa.gov, or go to https://www.epa.gov/dockets/epa-docket-center-reading-room, and is available from the sources indicated elsewhere in this paragraph. The material is also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, email fr.inspection@nara.gov, or go to www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html.

(1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20004; telephone: (202) 566-1744.

(i) Method 200.7, “Determination of Metals and Trace Elements in Water and Wastes by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry,” Revision 4.4, EMMC Version, 1994. Available at https://www.epa.gov/esam/method-2007-determination-metals-and-trace-elements-water-and-wastes-inductively-coupled-plasma.

(ii) Method 537.1, “Determination of Selected Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry,” Version 2.0, 2020. Available at https://www.epa.gov/water-research/epa-drinking-water-research-methods.

(iii) Method 533, “Determination of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water by Isotope Dilution Anion Exchange Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry,” November 2019, EPA 815-B-19-020. Available at https://www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods.

(2) American Public Health Association, 800 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20001-3710; telephone: (202) 777-2742; email: comments@apha.org; www.apha.org.

(i) “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater,” 23rd edition (2017).

(A) SM 3120 B, “Metals by Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (2017): Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Method.”

(B) [Reserved]

(ii) “Standard Methods Online,” approved 1999; https://www.standardmethods.org.

(A) SM 3120 B, “Metals by Plasma Emission Spectroscopy: Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Method,” revised December 14, 2020.

(B) [Reserved]

(3) ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959; telephone: (610) 832-9500; email: service@astm.org; www.astm.org.

(i) ASTM D1976-20, “Standard Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy,” approved May 1, 2020.

(ii) [Reserved]

[FR Doc. 2021-27858 Filed 12-23-21; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 6560-50-P

2024-05-09T05:00:00Z

EPA Final Rule: Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is finalizing a Clean Water Act regulation to revise the technology-based effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) for the steam electric power generating point source category applicable to flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater, bottom ash (BA) transport water and legacy wastewater at existing sources, and combustion residual leachate (CRL) at new and existing sources. Last updated in 2015 and 2020, this regulation is estimated to cost an additional $536 million to $1.1 billion dollars annually in social costs and reduce pollutant discharges by an additional approximately 660 to 672 million pounds per year.

DATES: This final rule is effective on July 8, 2024 published in the Federal Register May 9, 2024, page 40198.

View final rule.

Part 423 - Steam electric power generating point source category
Authority Revised View text
§423.10 Applicability.
Entire sectionRevised View text
§423.11 Specialized definitions.
(n), (p), (r), (w), (z), and (bb)Revised View text
(ee) and (ff)AddedView text
§423.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).
(g), (h)(1), (i)(1), (k), (l), and (o) Revised View text
§423.15 New source performance standards (NSPS).
(c)AddedView text
§423.16 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).
(e) and (g)Revised View text
§423.17 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).
(c)AddedView text
§423.18 Permit conditions.
Entire sectionRevised View text
§423.19 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.
Entire sectionRevised View text

New Text

Part 423 - Steam electric power generating point source category

Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.; 1311; 1314(b), (c), (e), (g), and (i)(A) and (B); 1316; 1317; 1318 and 1361.

§423.10 Applicability and severability.

(a) Applicability. The provisions of this part apply to discharges resulting from the operation of a generating unit by an establishment whose generation of electricity is the predominant source of revenue or principal reason for operation, and whose generation of electricity results primarily from a process utilizing fossil-type fuel (coal, oil, or gas), fuel derived from fossil fuel (e.g., petroleum coke, synthesis gas), or nuclear fuel in conjunction with a thermal cycle employing the steam water system as the thermodynamic medium. This part applies to discharges associated with both the combustion turbine and steam turbine portions of a combined cycle generating unit.

(b) Severability. The provisions of this part are separate and severable from one another. If any provision is stayed or determined to be invalid, the remaining provisions shall continue in effect.

§423.11 Specialized definitions.

* * * * *

(n) The term flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater means any wastewater generated specifically from the wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber system that comes into contact with the flue gas or the FGD solids, including but not limited to, the blowdown from the FGD scrubber system, overflow or underflow from the solids separation process, FGD solids wash water, and the filtrate from the solids dewatering process. Wastewater generated from cleaning the FGD scrubber, cleaning FGD solids separation equipment, cleaning FGD solids dewatering equipment; FGD paste equipment cleaning water; treated FGD wastewater permeate or distillate used as boiler makeup water; water that is collected in floor drains in the FGD process area; wastewater removed from FGD wastewater treatment equipment within the first 120 days of decommissioning the equipment, or wastewater generated by a 10-year, 24-hour or longer duration storm event when meeting the certification requirements in §423.19(o) is not considered FGD wastewater.

* * * * *

(p) The term transport water means any wastewater that is used to convey fly ash, bottom ash, or economizer ash from the ash collection or storage equipment, or boiler, and has direct contact with the ash. Transport water does not include low volume, short duration discharges of wastewater from minor leaks (e.g., leaks from valve packing, pipe flanges, or piping), minor maintenance events (e.g., replacement of valves or pipe sections), FGD paste equipment cleaning water, bottom ash purge water, wastewater removed from ash handling equipment within the first 120 days of decommissioning the equipment, or wastewater generated by a 10-year, 24-hour or longer duration storm event when meeting the certification requirements in §423.19(o).

* * * * *

(r) The term combustion residual leachate means leachate from landfills or surface impoundments containing combustion residuals. Leachate is composed of liquid, including any suspended or dissolved constituents in the liquid, that has percolated through waste or other materials emplaced in a landfill, or that passes through the surface impoundment's containment structure (e.g., bottom, dikes, berms). Combustion residual leachate includes seepage and/or leakage from a combustion residual landfill or impoundment unit. Combustion residual leachate includes wastewater from landfills and surface impoundments located on non-adjoining property when under the operational control of the permitted facility. Combustion residual leachate does not include wastewater generated by a 10-year, 24-hour or longer duration storm event when meeting the certification requirements in §423.19(o).

* * * * *

(w) The term permanent cessation of coal combustion means the owner or operator certifies under §423.19(g) or (h) that an electric generating unit will cease combustion of coal no later than December 31, 2028, or December 31, 2034.

* * * * *

(z) The term low utilization electric generating unit means any electric generating unit for which the facility owner certifies, and annually recertifies, under §423.19(f) that the two-year average annual capacity utilization rating is less than 10 percent.

* * * * *

(bb) The term tank means a stationary device, designed to contain an accumulation of wastewater which is constructed primarily of non-earthen materials (e.g., wood, concrete, steel, plastic) which provide structural support and which is not a coal combustion residual surface impoundment.

* * * * *

§423.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

* * * * *

(g) FGD wastewater(1) 2020 BAT.(i) Except for those discharges to which paragraph (g)(2) or (3) of this section applies, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in table 5 to this paragraph (g)(1)(i). Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph (g)(1)(i) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning October 13, 2021, but no later than December 31, 2025. The effluent limitations in this paragraph (g)(1)(i) apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph (g)(1)(i), until the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations in paragraph (g)(4) of this section.

Table 5 to Paragraph (g)(1)(i)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyBAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)188
Mercury, total (ng/L)10334
Selenium, total (µg/L)7029
Nitrate/nitrite as N (mg/L)43

(ii) For FGD wastewater generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, the EPA is declining to establish BAT limitations and is reserving such limitations to be established by the permitting authority on a case-by-case basis using the permitting authority's best professional judgment.

(2) 2020 BAT subcategories.(i) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts, that is an oil-fired unit, or for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to §423.19(g), the quantity of pollutants discharged in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed for total suspended solids (TSS) in §423.12(b)(11).

(A) For any electric generating unit for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to §423.19(g), where such unit has permanently ceased coal combustion by December 31, 2028, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in FGD wastewater after April 30, 2029.

(B) For any electric generating unit for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to §423.19(g), where such unit has failed to permanently cease coal combustion by December 31, 2028, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in FGD wastewater after December 31, 2028.

(ii) For FGD wastewater discharges from a high FGD flow facility, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in table 6 to this paragraph (g)(2)(ii). Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph (g)(2)(ii) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning October 13, 2021, but no later than December 31, 2023. The effluent limitations in this paragraph (g)(2)(ii) apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph (g)(2)(ii), until the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations in paragraph (g)(4) of this section.

Table 6 to Paragraph (g)(2)(ii)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyBAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)118
Mercury, total (ng/L)788356

(iii) For FGD wastewater discharges from a low utilization electric generating unit, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in table 6 to paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section. Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph (g)(2)(iii) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning October 13, 2021, but no later than December 31, 2023. These effluent limitations apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph (g)(2)(iii), until the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations in paragraph (g)(4) of this section.

(3) Voluntary incentives plan.(i) For dischargers who voluntarily choose to meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph (g)(3)(i), the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in table 7 to this paragraph (g)(3)(i). Dischargers who choose to meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph (g)(3)(i) must meet such limitations by December 31, 2028. The effluent limitations in this paragraph (g)(3)(i) apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after December 31, 2028.

Table 7 to Paragraph (g)(3)(i)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyBAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (ug/L)5NA
Mercury, total (ng/L)2310
Selenium, total (ug/L)10NA
Nitrate/Nitrite (mg/L)2.01.2
Bromide (mg/L)0.2NA
TDS (mg/L)306149

(ii) For discharges of FGD wastewater generated before December 31, 2023, the quantity of pollutants discharged in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed for TSS in §423.12(b)(11).

(4) 2024 BAT.(i) Except for those discharges to which paragraphs (g)(3) and (g)(4)(ii) through (iv) of this section applies, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in FGD wastewater.

(A) Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for FGD wastewater in this paragraph (g)(4)(i) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning July 8, 2024, but no later than December 31, 2029. These effluent limitations apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph (g)(4)(i).

(B) A facility which submits a request under §423.19(n) may discharge permeate or distillate from an FGD wastewater treatment system designed to achieve the limitations in this paragraph (g)(4)(i) for an additional period of up to one year from the date determined in paragraph (g)(4)(i)(A) of this section.

(ii) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts or that is an oil-fired unit, the quantity of pollutants discharged in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed for TSS in §423.12(b)(11).

(iii) For any electric generating unit for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to §423.19(h), the quantity of pollutants discharged in FGD wastewater shall continue to be subject to limitations specified in paragraph (g)(1) or (g)(2)(ii) or (iii) of this section as incorporated into the existing permit.

(A) Where such unit has permanently ceased coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in FGD wastewater after April 30, 2035.

(B) Where such unit has failed to permanently cease coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in FGD wastewater after December 31, 2034.

(iv) For FGD wastewater discharged from any coal combustion residual surface impoundment which commences closure pursuant to 40 CFR 257.102(e) after July 8, 2024, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in table 8 to this paragraph (g)(4)(iv).

Table 8 to Paragraph (g)(4)(iv)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyBAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)118
Mercury, total (ng/L)788356

(h) Fly ash transport water.(1)(i) Except for those discharges to which paragraph (h)(2) of this section applies, or when the fly ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in fly ash transport water. Dischargers must meet the discharge limitation in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning November 1, 2018, but no later than December 31, 2023. This limitation applies to the discharge of fly ash transport water generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the discharge limitation, as specified in this paragraph. Whenever fly ash transport water is used in any other plant process or is sent to a treatment system at the plant (except when it is used in the FGD scrubber), the resulting effluent must comply with the discharge limitation in this paragraph. When the fly ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, the quantity of pollutants in fly ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of fly ash transport water times the concentration listed in the table in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section.

(ii) Legacy fly ash transport water. For fly ash transport water generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section, the EPA is declining to establish BAT limitations and is reserving such limitations to be established by the permitting authority on a case-by-case basis using the permitting authority's best professional judgment.

* * * * *

(i) Flue gas mercury control wastewater.(1)(i) Except for those discharges to which paragraph (i)(2) of this section applies, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in flue gas mercury control wastewater. Dischargers must meet the discharge limitation in this paragraph by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning November 1, 2018, but no later than December 31, 2023. This limitation applies to the discharge of flue gas mercury control wastewater generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the discharge limitation, as specified in this paragraph. Whenever flue gas mercury control wastewater is used in any other plant process or is sent to a treatment system at the plant, the resulting effluent must comply with the discharge limitation in this paragraph.

(ii) Legacy flue gas mercury control wastewater. For flue gas mercury control wastewater generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (i)(1)(i) of this section, the EPA is declining to establish BAT limitations and is reserving such limitations to be established by the permitting authority on a case-by-case basis using the permitting authority's best professional judgment.

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(k) Bottom ash transport water(1) 2020 BAT.(i) Except for those discharges to which paragraph (k)(2) of this section applies, or when the bottom ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water. Dischargers must meet the discharge limitation in this paragraph (k)(1)(i) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning October 13, 2021, but no later than December 31, 2025. The limitation in this paragraph (k)(1)(i) applies to the discharge of bottom ash transport water generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the discharge limitation, as specified in this paragraph (k)(1)(i), until the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations in paragraph (k)(4) of this section. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (k)(2) of this section applies, whenever bottom ash transport water is used in any other plant process or is sent to a treatment system at the plant (except when it is used in the FGD scrubber), the resulting effluent must comply with the discharge limitation in this paragraph (k)(1)(i). When the bottom ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, it ceases to be bottom ash transport water, and instead is FGD wastewater, which must meet the requirements in paragraph (g) of this section.

(ii) For bottom ash transport water generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section, the EPA is declining to establish BAT limitations and is reserving such limitations to be established by the permitting authority on a case-by-case basis using the permitting authority's best professional judgment.

(2) 2020 BAT subcategories.(i)(A) The discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water from a properly installed, operated, and maintained bottom ash system is authorized under the following conditions:

(1) To maintain system water balance when precipitation-related inflows are generated from storm events exceeding a 10-year storm event of 24-hour or longer duration (e.g., 30-day storm event) and cannot be managed by installed spares, redundancies, maintenance tanks, and other secondary bottom ash system equipment; or

(2) To maintain system water balance when regular inflows from wastestreams other than bottom ash transport water exceed the ability of the bottom ash system to accept recycled water and segregating these other wastestreams is not feasible; or

(3) To maintain system water chemistry where installed equipment at the facility is unable to manage pH, corrosive substances, substances or conditions causing scaling, or fine particulates to below levels which impact system operation or maintenance; or

(4) To conduct maintenance not otherwise included in paragraph (k)(2)(i)(A)(1), (2), or (3) of this section and not exempted from the definition of transport water in §423.11(p), and when water volumes cannot be managed by installed spares, redundancies, maintenance tanks, and other secondary bottom ash system equipment.

(B) The total volume that may be discharged for the activities in paragraph (k)(2)(i)(A) of this section shall be reduced or eliminated to the extent achievable using control measures (including best management practices) that are technologically available and economically achievable in light of best industry practice. The total volume of the discharge authorized in this paragraph (k)(2)(i)(B) shall be determined on a case-by-case basis by the permitting authority and in no event shall such discharge exceed a 30-day rolling average of ten percent of the primary active wetted bottom ash system volume. The volume of daily discharges used to calculate the 30-day rolling average shall be calculated using measurements from flow monitors.

(ii) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts, that is an oil-fired unit, or for which the owner has certified to the permitting authority that it will cease combustion of coal pursuant to §423.19(g), the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of the applicable wastewater times the concentration for TSS listed in §423.12(b)(4).

(A) Where a unit has certified that it will cease combustion of coal pursuant to §423.19(g) and such unit has permanently ceased coal combustion by December 31, 2028, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water after April 30, 2029.

(B) Where a unit has certified that it will cease combustion of coal pursuant to §423.19(g) and such unit has failed to permanently cease coal combustion by December 31, 2028, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water after December 31, 2028.

(iii) For bottom ash transport water generated by a low utilization electric generating unit, the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of the applicable wastewater times the concentration for TSS listed in §423.12(b)(4), until the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations in paragraph (k)(4) of this section, and shall incorporate the elements of a best management practices plan as described in paragraph (k)(3) of this section.

(3) Best management practices plan. Where required in paragraph (k)(2)(iii) of this section, the discharger shall prepare, implement, review, and update a best management practices plan for the recycle of bottom ash transport water, and must include:

(i) Identification of the low utilization coal-fired generating units that contribute bottom ash to the bottom ash transport system.

(ii) A description of the existing bottom ash handling system and a list of system components (e.g., remote mechanical drag system, tanks, impoundments, chemical addition). Where multiple generating units share a bottom ash transport system, the plan shall specify which components are associated with low utilization generating units.

(iii) A detailed water balance, based on measurements, or estimates where measurements are not feasible, specifying the volume and frequency of water additions and removals from the bottom ash transport system, including:

(A) Water removed from the BA transport system:

(1) To the discharge outfall;

(2) To the FGD scrubber system;

(3) Through evaporation;

(4) Entrained with any removed ash; and

(5) To any other mechanisms not specified paragraphs (k)(3)(iii)(A)(1) through (4) of this section.

(B) Water entering or recycled to the BA transport system:

(1) Makeup water added to the BA transport water system.

(2) Bottom ash transport water recycled back to the system in lieu of makeup water.

(3) Any other mechanisms not specified in paragraphs (k)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2) of this section.

(iv) Measures to be employed by all facilities:

(A) Implementation of a comprehensive preventive maintenance program to identify, repair and replace equipment prior to failures that result in the release of bottom ash transport water.

(B) Daily or more frequent inspections of the entire bottom ash transport water system, including valves, pipe flanges and piping, to identify leaks, spills and other unintended bottom ash transport water escaping from the system, and timely repair of such conditions.

(C) Documentation of preventive and corrective maintenance performed.

(v) Evaluation of options and feasibility, accounting for the associated costs, for eliminating or minimizing discharges of bottom ash transport water, including:

(A) Segregation of bottom ash transport water from other process water.

(B) Minimization of the introduction of stormwater by diverting (e.g., curbing, using covers) storm water to a segregated collection system.

(C) Recycling bottom ash transport water back to the bottom ash transport water system.

(D) Recycling bottom ash transport water for use in the FGD scrubber.

(E) Optimization of existing equipment (e.g., pumps, pipes, tanks) and installing new equipment where practicable to achieve the maximum amount of recycle.

(F) Utilization of “in-line” treatment of transport water (e.g., pH control, fines removal) where needed to facilitate recycle.

(vi) Description of the bottom ash recycle system, including all technologies, measures, and practices that will be used to minimize discharge.

(vii) A schedule showing the sequence of implementing any changes necessary to achieve the minimized discharge of bottom ash transport water, including the following:

(A) The anticipated initiation and completion dates of construction and installation associated with the technology components or process modifications specified in the plan.

(B) The anticipated dates that the discharger expects the technologies and process modifications to be fully implemented on a full-scale basis, which in no case shall be later than December 31, 2023.

(C) The anticipated change in discharge volume and effluent quality associated with implementation of the plan.

(viii) Description establishing a method for documenting and demonstrating to the permitting/control authority that the recycle system is well operated and maintained.

(ix) Performance of weekly flow monitoring for the following:

(A) Make up water to the bottom ash transport water system.

(B) Bottom ash transport water sluice flow rate (e.g., to the surface impoundment(s), dewatering bins(s), tank(s), remote mechanical drag system).

(C) Bottom ash transport water discharge to surface water or publicly owned treatment works (POTW).

(D) Bottom ash transport water recycle back to the bottom ash system or FGD scrubber.

(4) 2024 BAT.(i) Except for those discharges to which paragraphs (k)(4)(ii) through (iv) of this section applies, or when the bottom ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water. Dischargers must meet the discharge limitation in this paragraph (k)(4)(i) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning July 8, 2024, but no later than December 31, 2029. The limitation in this paragraph (k)(4)(i) applies to the discharge of bottom ash transport water generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the discharge limitation, as specified in this paragraph (k)(4)(i).

(ii) For any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of less than or equal to 50 megawatts or that is an oil-fired unit, the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of the applicable wastewater times the concentration for TSS listed in §423.12(b)(4).

(iii) For any electric generating unit for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to §423.19(h), the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall continue to be subject to limitations specified in paragraph (k)(1) or (k)(2)(i) or (iii) of this section as incorporated into the existing permit.

(A) Where such unit has permanently ceased coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water after April 30, 2035.

(B) Where such unit has failed to permanently cease coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water after December 31, 2034.

(iv) For bottom ash transport water discharged from any coal combustion residual surface impoundment which commences closure pursuant to 40 CFR 257.102(e) after July 8, 2024, the quantity of pollutants in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of bottom ash transport water times the concentration listed in table 10 to this paragraph (k)(4)(iv).

Table 10 to Paragraph (k)(4)(iv)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyBAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)118
Mercury, total (ng/L)788356

(l) Combustion residual leachate(1) 2024 BAT.(i) Except for those discharges to which paragraph (l)(1)(i)(B) or (C) or (1)(2) of this section applies, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in combustion residual leachate.

(A) Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for combustion residual leachate in this paragraph (l)(1)(i) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning July 8, 2024, but no later than December 31, 2029. The effluent limitations in this paragraph (l)(1)(i) apply to the discharge of combustion residual leachate generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph (l)(1)(i).

(B) A facility which submits a request under §423.19(n) may discharge permeate or distillate from a combustion residual leachate treatment system designed to achieve the limitations in this paragraph (l)(1)(i) for an additional period of up to one year from the date determined in paragraph (l)(1)(i)(A) of this section.

(C) After the retirement of all units at a facility, the quantity of pollutants in combustion residual leachate (CRL) shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of CRL permeate times the concentrations listed in the table 7 to paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section or the flow of CRL distillate times the concentrations listed in the table following §423.15(b)(13).

(ii) For combustion residual leachate generated before the date determined by the permitting authority, as specified in paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section, the EPA is declining to establish BAT limitations and is reserving such limitations to be established by the permitting authority on a case-by-case basis using the permitting authority's best professional judgment.

(2) 2024 BAT subcategories.(i) Discharges of combustion residual leachate for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to §423.19(h).

(A) Where such unit has permanently ceased coal combustion by December 31, 2034, the quantity of pollutants in combustion residual leachate shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of combustion residual leachate times the concentration listed in table 11 to this paragraph (l)(2)(i)(A) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning 120 days after the facility permanently ceases coal combustion, but no later than April 30, 2035.

Table 11 to paragraph (l)(2)(i)(A)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyBAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)118
Mercury, total (ng/L)788356

(B) Where such unit has failed to permanently cease coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in combustion residual leachate after December 31, 2034.

(ii) For discharges of unmanaged combustion residual leachate, the quantity of pollutants in unmanaged combustion residual leachate shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of unmanaged combustion residual leachate times the concentration listed in the table 11 to paragraph (l)(2)(i)(A) of this section.

(A) Dischargers must meet the effluent limitations for unmanaged combustion residual leachate in this paragraph (l)(2)(ii) by a date determined by the permitting authority that is as soon as possible beginning July 8, 2024, but no later than December 31, 2029. The effluent limitations in this paragraph (l)(2)(ii) apply to the discharge of unmanaged combustion residual leachate generated on and after the date determined by the permitting authority for meeting the effluent limitations, as specified in this paragraph (l)(2)(ii).

(B) Discharges of unmanaged combustion residual leachate before the date determined in paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(A) of this section.

(iii) For combustion residual leachate discharged from any coal combustion residual surface impoundment which commences closure pursuant to 40 CFR 257.102(e) after July 8, 2024, the quantity of pollutants in combustion residual leachate shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of combustion residual leachate times the concentration listed in table 12 to this paragraph (l)(2)(iii).

Table 12 to Paragraph (l)(2)(iii)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyBAT effluent limitations
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)118
Mercury, total (ng/L)788356

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(o) Transfers.(1) Transfer between applicable limitations in a permit. Where, in the permit, the permitting authority has included alternative limits subject to eligibility requirements, upon timely notification to the permitting authority under §423.19(l), a facility can become subject to the alternative limits under the following circumstances:

(i) On or before December 31, 2023, a facility may convert:

(A) From limitations for electric generating units permanently ceasing coal combustion under paragraph (g)(2)(i) or (k)(2)(ii) of this section to limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraph (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section; or

(B) From voluntary incentives program limitations under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section or generally applicable limitations under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section to limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraph (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section.

(ii) On or before December 31, 2025, a facility may convert:

(A) From voluntary incentives program limitations under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section to limitations for electric generating units permanently ceasing coal combustion under paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section; or

(B) From limitations for electric generating units permanently ceasing coal combustion under paragraph (g)(2)(i) or (k)(2)(ii) of this section to voluntary incentives program limitations under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section or generally applicable limitations under (k)(1)(i) of this section; or

(C) From limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraph (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section to generally applicable limitations under paragraph (g)(1)(i) or (k)(1)(i) of this section; or

(D) From limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraph (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section to voluntary incentives program limitations under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section or generally applicable limitations under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section; or

(E) From limitations for low utilization electric generating units under paragraph (g)(2)(iii) or (k)(2)(iii) of this section to limitations for electric generating units permanently ceasing coal combustion under paragraph (g)(2)(i) and (k)(2)(ii) of this section.

(2) A facility must be in compliance with all of its currently applicable requirements to be eligible to file a notice under §423.19(l) and to become subject to a different set of applicable requirements under paragraph (o)(1) of this section.

(3) Where a facility seeking a transfer under paragraph (o)(1)(ii) of this section is currently subject to more stringent limitations than the limitations being sought, the facility must continue to meet those more stringent limitations.

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§423.16 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

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(e) FGD wastewater(1) 2020 PSES. Except as provided for in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, for any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of more than 50 megawatts, that is not an oil-fired unit, and that the owner has not certified that it will cease coal combustion pursuant to §423.19(g), the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in table 3 to this paragraph (e)(1). Dischargers must meet the standards in this paragraph (e)(1) by October 13, 2023, except as provided for in paragraph (e)(2) of this section. The standards in this paragraph (e)(1) apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after October 13, 2023.

Table 3 to Paragraph (e)(1)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyPSES
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)188
Mercury, total (ng/L)10334
Selenium, total (µg/L)7029
Nitrate/nitrite as N (mg/L)43

(2) 2020 PSES subcategories.(i) For FGD wastewater discharges from a low utilization electric generating unit, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in the table 4 to paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section. Dischargers must meet the standards in this paragraph (e)(2)(i) by October 13, 2023.

(ii) If any low utilization electric generating unit fails to timely recertify that the two year average capacity utilization rating of such an electric generating unit is below 10 percent per year as specified in §423.19(f), regardless of the reason, within two years from the date such a recertification was required, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in the table 3 to paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

Table 4 to Paragraph (e)(2)(ii)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyPSES
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)118
Mercury, total (ng/L)788356

(3) 2024 PSES. Except as provided for in paragraph (e)(4) of this section, for any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of more than 50 megawatts and that is not an oil-fired unit, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in FGD wastewater. Dischargers must meet the standards in this paragraph (e)(3) by May 9, 2027, except as provided for in paragraph (e)(4) of this section. The standards in this paragraph (e)(3) apply to the discharge of FGD wastewater generated on and after May 9, 2027.

(4) 2024 PSES subcategories.(i) For any electric generating unit for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to §423.19(h), the quantity of pollutants discharged in FGD wastewater shall continue to be subject to standards specified in paragraph (e)(1) or (2) of this section as incorporated into the existing control mechanism.

(A) Where such unit has permanently ceased coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in FGD wastewater after April 30, 2035.

(B) Where such unit has failed to permanently cease coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in FGD wastewater after December 31, 2034.

(ii) For FGD wastewater discharged from any coal combustion residual surface impoundment which commences closure pursuant to 40 CFR 257.102(e) after July 8, 2024, the quantity of pollutants in FGD wastewater shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of FGD wastewater times the concentration listed in the table 5 to this paragraph (e)(4)(ii).

Table 5 to Paragraph (e)(4)(ii)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyPSES
Maximum for any 1 dayAverage of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)118
Mercury, total (ng/L)788356

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(g) Bottom ash transport water(1) 2020 PSES. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (g)(2) of this section applies, or when the bottom ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, for any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of more than 50 megawatts, that is not an oil-fired unit, that is not a low utilization electric generating unit, and that the owner has not certified that the electric generating unit will cease coal combustion pursuant to §423.19(g), there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water. The standard in this paragraph (g)(1) applies to the discharge of bottom ash transport water generated on and after October 13, 2023. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (g)(2) of this section applies, whenever bottom ash transport water is used in any other plant process or is sent to a treatment system at the plant (except when it is used in the FGD scrubber), the resulting effluent must comply with the discharge standard in this paragraph (g)(1). When the bottom ash transport water is used in the FGD scrubber, the quantity of pollutants in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of bottom ash transport water times the concentration listed in table 3 to paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(2) 2020 PSES subcategories.(i) The discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water from a properly installed, operated, and maintained bottom ash system is authorized under the following conditions:

(A) To maintain system water balance when precipitation-related inflows are generated from a 10-year storm event of 24-hour or longer duration (e.g., 30-day storm event) and cannot be managed by installed spares, redundancies, maintenance tanks, and other secondary bottom ash system equipment; or

(B) To maintain system water balance when regular inflows from wastestreams other than bottom ash transport water exceed the ability of the bottom ash system to accept recycled water and segregating these other wastestreams is feasible; or

(C) To maintain system water chemistry where current operations at the facility are unable to currently manage pH, corrosive substances, substances or conditions causing scaling, or fine particulates to below levels which impact system operation or maintenance; or

(D) To conduct maintenance not otherwise included in paragraphs (g)(2)(i)(A), (B), or (C) of this section and not exempted from the definition of transport water in §423.11(p), and when water volumes cannot be managed by installed spares, redundancies, maintenance tanks, and other secondary bottom ash system equipment.

(ii) The total volume that may be discharged to a POTW for the activities in paragraphs (g)(2)(i)(A) through (D) of this section shall be reduced or eliminated to the extent achievable as determined by the control authority. The control authority may also include control measures (including best management practices) that are technologically available and economically achievable in light of best industry practice. In no event shall the total volume of the discharge exceed a 30-day rolling average of ten percent of the primary active wetted bottom ash system volume. The volume of daily discharges used to calculate the 30-day rolling average shall be calculated using measurements from flow monitors.

(iii) For bottom ash transport water generated by a low utilization electric generating unit, the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall incorporate the elements of a best management practices plan as described in §423.13(k)(3).

(3) 2024 PSES. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (g)(4) of this section applies, for any electric generating unit with a total nameplate generating capacity of more than 50 megawatts, that is not an oil-fired unit, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water. The standard in this paragraph (g)(3) applies to the discharge of bottom ash transport water generated on and after May 9, 2027. Except for those discharges to which paragraph (g)(4) of this section applies, whenever bottom ash transport water is used in any other plant process or is sent to a treatment system at the plant, the resulting effluent must comply with the discharge standard in this paragraph (g)(3).

(4) 2024 PSES subcategories.(i) For any electric generating unit for which the owner has submitted a certification pursuant to §423.19(h), the quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall continue to be subject to standards specified in paragraph (g)(1) or (2) as incorporated into the existing control mechanism.

(A) Where such unit has permanently ceased coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water after April 30, 2035.

(B) Where such unit has failed to permanently cease coal combustion by December 31, 2034, there shall be no discharge of pollutants in bottom ash transport water after December 31, 2034.

(ii) For bottom ash transport water discharged from any coal combustion residual surface impoundment which commences closure pursuant to 40 CFR 257.102(e) after July 8, 2024, the quantity of pollutants in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the quantity determined by multiplying the flow of bottom ash transport water times the concentration listed in table 6 to this paragraph (g)(4)(ii).

Table 6 to Paragraph (g)(4)(ii)
Pollutant or pollutant propertyPSES
Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed
Arsenic, total (µg/L)118
Mercury, total (ng/L)788356

* * * * *

§423.18 Permit conditions.

All permits subject to this part shall include the following permit conditions:

(a) An electric generating unit shall qualify as a low utilization electric generating unit, permanently ceasing the combustion of coal by December 31, 2028, or permanently ceasing the combustion of coal by December 31, 2034, if such qualification would have been demonstrated absent the following qualifying event:

(1) An emergency order issued by the Department of Energy under section 202(c) of the Federal Power Act;

(2) A reliability must run agreement issued by a Public Utility Commission; or

(3) Any other reliability-related order, energy emergency alert, or agreement issued by a competent electricity regulator (e.g., an independent system operator) which results in that electric generating unit operating in a way not contemplated when the certification was made; or

(4) The operation of the electric generating unit was necessary for load balancing in an area subject to a declaration under 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq., that there exists:

(i) An “Emergency”; or

(ii) A “Major Disaster”; and

(iii) That load balancing was due to the event that caused the “Emergency” or “Major Disaster” in paragraphs (a)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section to be declared.

(b) Any facility providing the required documentation pursuant to §423.19(i) may avail itself of the protections of the permit condition in paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) A facility discharging permeate or distillate from an FGD wastewater or combustion residual leachate treatment system and satisfying §423.19(n) shall be deemed to meet the following requirements:

(1) The FGD wastewater requirements of §423.13(g)(4) for up to one year after the date determined pursuant to §423.11(t); and

(2) The combustion residual leachate requirements of §423.13(l)(1) for up to one year after the date determined pursuant to §423.11(t).

§423.19 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

(a) In general. Discharges subject to this part must comply with the reporting requirements in this section.

(b) Signature and certification. Unless otherwise provided in this section, all certifications and recertifications required in this part must be signed and certified pursuant to 40 CFR 122.22 for direct dischargers or 40 CFR 403.12(l) for indirect dischargers.

(c) Publicly accessible internet site requirements.(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, each facility subject to one or more of the reporting requirements in paragraphs (d) through (o) of this section must maintain a publicly accessible internet site (ELG website) containing the information specified in paragraphs (d) through (o), if applicable. This website shall be titled “ELG Rule Compliance Data and Information.” The facility must ensure that all information required to be posted is immediately available to anyone visiting the site, without requiring any prerequisite, such as registration or a requirement to submit a document request. All required information must be clearly identifiable and must be able to be immediately downloaded by anyone accessing the site in a format that enables additional analysis (e.g., comma-separated values text file format). When the facility initially creates, or later changes, the web address (i.e., Uniform Resource Locator (URL)) at any point, they must notify EPA via the “contact us” form on EPA's Effluent Guidelines website and the permitting authority or control authority within 14 days of creating the website or making the change. The facility's ELG website must also have a “contact us” form or a specific email address posted on the website for the public to use to submit questions and issues relating to the availability of information on the website.

(2)(i) When an owner or operator subject to this section already maintains a “CCR Rule Compliance Data and Information” website pursuant to 40 CFR 257.107, the postings required under this section may be made to the existing “CCR Rule Compliance Data and Information” website and shall be delineated under a separate heading that shall state “ELG Rule Compliance Data and Information.” When electing to use an existing website pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2), the facility shall notify EPA via the “contact us” form on EPA's Effluent Guidelines website and the permitting authority or control authority no later than July 8, 2024, or upon first becoming subject to paragraphs (d) through (o) of this section, whichever is later.

(ii) When the same owner or operator is subject to the provisions of this part for multiple facilities, the owner or operator may comply with the requirements of this section by using the same internet site for multiple facilities provided the ELG website clearly delineates information by the name of each facility.

(3) Unless otherwise required in this section, the information required to be posted to the ELG website must be made available to the public for at least 10 years following the date on which the information was first posted to the ELG website, or the length of the permit plus five years, whichever is longer. All required information must be clearly identifiable and must be able to be immediately downloaded by anyone accessing the site in a format that enables additional analysis (e.g., comma-separated values text file format).

(4) Unless otherwise required in this section, the information must be posted to the ELG website:

(i) Within 30 days of submitting the information to the permitting authority or control authority; or

(ii) Where information was submitted to the permitting authority or control authority prior to July 8, 2024, by July 8, 2024.

(d) Requirements for facilities discharging bottom ash transport water under this part(1) Certification statement. For sources seeking to discharge bottom ash transport water pursuant to §423.13(k)(2)(i) or (g)(2)(i), an initial certification shall be submitted to the permitting authority by the as soon as possible date determined under §423.11(t), or the control authority by October 13, 2023, in the case of an indirect discharger.

(2) Signature and certification. The certification statement must be signed and certified by a professional engineer.

(3) Contents. An initial certification shall include the following:

(i) A statement that the professional engineer is a licensed professional engineer.

(ii) A statement that the professional engineer is familiar with the requirements in this part.

(iii) A statement that the professional engineer is familiar with the facility.

(iv) The primary active wetted bottom ash system volume in §423.11(aa).

(v) Material assumptions, information, and calculations used by the certifying professional engineer to determine the primary active wetted bottom ash system volume.

(vi) A list of all potential discharges under §423.13(k)(2)(i)(A)(1) through (4) or §423.16(g)(2)(i)(A) through (D), the expected volume of each discharge, and the expected frequency of each discharge.

(vii) Material assumptions, information, and calculations used by the certifying professional engineer to determine the expected volume and frequency of each discharge including a narrative discussion of why such water cannot be managed within the system and must be discharged.

(viii) A list of all wastewater treatment systems at the facility currently, or otherwise required by a date certain under this section.

(ix) A narrative discussion of each treatment system including the system type, design capacity, and current or expected operation.

(e) Requirements for a bottom ash best management practices plan(1) Initial and annual certification statement. For sources required to develop and implement a best management practices plan pursuant to §423.13(k)(3), an initial certification shall be made to the permitting authority with a permit application or within two years of October 13, 2021, whichever is later, or to the control authority no later than October 13, 2023, in the case of an indirect discharger, and an annual recertification shall be made to the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, within 60 days of the anniversary of the original plan.

(2) Signature and certification. The certification statement must be signed and certified by a professional engineer.

(3) Contents for initial certification. An initial certification shall include the following:

(i) A statement that the professional engineer is a licensed professional engineer.

(ii) A statement that the professional engineer is familiar with the requirements in this part.

(iii) A statement that the professional engineer is familiar with the facility.

(iv) The best management practices plan.

(v) A statement that the best management practices plan is being implemented.

(4) Additional contents for annual certification. In addition to the required contents of the initial certification in paragraph (e)(3) of this section an annual certification shall include the following:

(i) Any updates to the best management practices plan.

(ii) An attachment of weekly flow measurements from the previous year.

(iii) The average amount of recycled bottom ash transport water in gallons per day.

(iv) Copies of inspection reports and a summary of preventative maintenance performed on the system.

(v) A statement that the plan and corresponding flow records are being maintained at the office of the plant.

(f) Requirements for low utilization electric generating units(1) Notice of Planned Participation. For sources seeking to qualify as a low utilization electric generating units, a Notice of Planned Participation shall be submitted to the permitting authority or control authority no later than October 13, 2021.

(2) Contents. A Notice of Planned Participation shall identify the potential low utilization electric generating unit. The notice shall also include a statement of at least two years' capacity utilization rating data for the most recent two years of operation of each low utilization electric generating unit and a statement that the facility has a good faith belief that each low utilization electric generating unit will continue to operate at the required capacity utilization rating. Where the most recent capacity utilization rating does not meet the low utilization electric generating unit requirement, a discussion of the projected future utilization shall be provided, including material data and assumptions used to make that projection.

(3) Initial and annual certification statement. For sources seeking to qualify as a low utilization electric generating unit under this part, an initial certification shall be made to the permitting authority, or to the control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, no later than December 31, 2023, and an annual recertification shall be made to the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, within 60 days of submitting annual electricity production data to the Energy Information Administration.

(4) Contents. A certification or annual recertification shall be based on the information submitted to the Energy Information Administration and shall include copies of the underlying forms submitted to the Energy Information Administration, as well as any supplemental information and calculations used to determine the two year average annual capacity utilization rating.

(g) Requirements for units that will achieve permanent cessation of coal combustion by December 31, 2028(1) Notice of Planned Participation. For sources seeking to qualify as an electric generating unit that will achieve permanent cessation of coal combustion by December 31, 2028, under this part, a Notice of Planned Participation shall be made to the permitting authority, or to the control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, no later than June 27, 2023.

(2) Contents. A Notice of Planned Participation shall identify the electric generating units intended to achieve the permanent cessation of coal combustion. A Notice of Planned Participation shall include the expected date that each electric generating unit is projected to achieve permanent cessation of coal combustion, whether each date represents a retirement or a fuel conversion, whether each retirement or fuel conversion has been approved by a regulatory body, and what the relevant regulatory body is. The Notice of Planned Participation shall also include a copy of the most recent integrated resource plan for which the applicable state agency approved the retirement or repowering of the unit subject to the ELGs, certification of electric generating unit cessation under 40 CFR 257.103(b), or other documentation supporting that the electric generating unit will permanently cease the combustion of coal by December 31, 2028. The Notice of Planned Participation shall also include, for each such electric generating unit, a timeline to achieve the permanent cessation of coal combustion. Each timeline shall include interim milestones and the projected dates of completion.

(3) Annual progress report. Annually after submission of the Notice of Planned Participation in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, a progress report shall be filed with the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger.

(4) Contents. An annual progress report shall detail the completion of any interim milestones listed in the Notice of Planned Participation since the previous progress report, provide a narrative discussion of any completed, missed, or delayed milestones, and provide updated milestones. An annual progress report shall also include one of the following:

(i) A copy of the official suspension filing (or equivalent filing) made to the facility's reliability authority detailing the conversion to a fuel source other than coal;

(ii) A copy of the official retirement filing (or equivalent filing) made to the facility's reliability authority which must include a waiver of recission rights; or

(iii) An initial certification, or recertification for subsequent annual progress reports, containing either a statement that the facility will make the filing required in paragraph (g)(4)(i) of this section or a statement that the facility will make the filing required in paragraph (g)(4)(ii) of this section. The certification or recertification must include the estimated date that such a filing will be made.

(iv) A facility shall not include a certification or recertification under paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section in the final annual progress report submitted prior to permanent cessation of coal combustion. Rather, this final annual progress report must include the filing under paragraph (g)(4)(i) or (ii) of this section.

(h) Requirements for units that will achieve permanent cessation of coal combustion by December 31, 2034(1) Notice of Planned Participation. For sources seeking to qualify as an electric generating unit that will achieve permanent cessation of coal combustion by December 31, 2034, under this part, a Notice of Planned Participation shall be made to the permitting authority, or to the control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, no later than December 31, 2025.

(2) Contents. A Notice of Planned Participation shall identify the electric generating units intended to achieve the permanent cessation of coal combustion. A Notice of Planned Participation shall include the expected date that each electric generating unit is projected to achieve permanent cessation of coal combustion, whether each date represents a retirement or a fuel conversion, whether each retirement or fuel conversion has been approved by a regulatory body, and what the relevant regulatory body is. The Notice of Planned Participation shall also include a copy of the most recent integrated resource plan for which the applicable state agency approved the retirement or repowering of the unit subject to the ELGs, or other documentation supporting that the electric generating unit will permanently cease the combustion of coal by December 31, 2034. The Notice of Planned Participation shall also include, for each such electric generating unit, a timeline to achieve the permanent cessation of coal combustion. Each timeline shall include interim milestones and the projected dates of completion. Finally, the Notice of Planned Participation shall also include, for each such electric generating unit, a certification statement that the facility is in compliance with the following limitations or standards:

(i) The applicable limitations or standards for FGD wastewater in §423.13(g)(1) or (g)(2)(ii) or (iii) or §423.16(e)(1) or (2); and

(ii) The applicable limitations or standards for bottom ash transport water in §423.13(k)(1) or (k)(2)(i) or (iii) or §423.16(g)(1) or (2).

(3) Annual progress report. Annually after submission of the Notice of Planned Participation in paragraph (h)(1) of this section, a progress report shall be filed with the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger.

(4) Contents. An annual progress report shall detail the completion of any interim milestones listed in the Notice of Planned Participation since the previous progress report, provide a narrative discussion of any completed, missed, or delayed milestones, and provide updated milestones. An annual progress report shall also include one of the following:

(i) A copy of the official suspension filing (or equivalent filing) made to the facility's reliability authority detailing the conversion to a fuel source other than coal;

(ii) A copy of the official retirement filing (or equivalent filing) made to the facility's reliability authority which must include a waiver of recission rights; or

(iii) An initial certification, or recertification for subsequent annual progress reports, containing either a statement that the facility will make the filing required in paragraph (h)(4)(i) of this section or a statement that the facility will make the filing required in paragraph (h)(4)(ii) of this section. The certification or recertification must include the estimated date that such a filing will be made.

(iv) A facility shall not include a certification or recertification under paragraph (h)(4)(iii) of this section in the final annual progress report submitted prior to permanent cessation of coal combustion. Rather, this final annual progress report must include the filing under paragraph (h)(4)(i) or (ii) of this section.

(i) Requirements for facilities seeking protections under this part(1) Certification statement. For sources seeking to apply the protections of the permit conditions in §423.18(a), and for each instance that §423.18(a) is applied, a one-time certification shall be submitted to the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, no later than:

(i) In the case of an order or agreement under §423.18(a)(1), 30 days from receipt of the order or agreement attached pursuant to paragraph (i)(2)(ii) of this section; or

(ii) In the case of an “Emergency” or “Major Disaster” under §423.18(a)(2), 30 days from the date that a load balancing need arose.

(2) Contents. A certification statement must include the following:

(i) The qualifying event from the list in §423.18(a), the individual or entity that issued or triggered the event, and the date that such an event was issued or triggered.

(ii) A copy of any documentation of the qualifying event from the individual or entity listed under paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section, or, where such documentation does not exist, other documentation with indicia of reliability for the permitting authority to confirm the qualifying event.

(iii) An analysis and accompanying narrative discussion which demonstrates that an electric generating unit would have qualified for the subcategory at issue absent the event detailed in paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section, including the material data, assumptions, and methods used.

(3) Termination of need statement. For sources filing a certification statement under paragraph (i)(1) of this section, and for each such certification statement, a one-time termination of need statement shall be submitted to the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, no later than 30 days from when the source is no longer subject to increased production from the qualifying event.

(4) Contents. A termination of need statement must include a narrative discussion including the date the qualifying event terminated, or if it has not terminated, why the source believes the capacity utilization will no longer be elevated to a level requiring the protection of §423.18.

(j) Requirements for facilities voluntarily meeting limits in this part(1) Notice of Planned Participation. For sources opting to comply with the Voluntary Incentives Program requirements of §423.13(g)(3)(i) by December 31, 2028, a Notice of Planned Participation shall be made to the permitting authority no later than October 13, 2021.

(2) Contents. A Notice of Planned Participation shall identify the facility opting to comply with the Voluntary Incentives Program requirements of §423.13(g)(3)(i), specify what technology or technologies are projected to be used to comply with those requirements, and provide a detailed engineering dependency chart and accompanying narrative demonstrating when and how the system(s) and any accompanying disposal requirements will be achieved by December 31, 2028.

(3) Annual progress report. After submission of the Notice of Planned Participation in paragraph (j)(1) of this section, a progress report shall be filed with the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger.

(4) Contents. An annual progress report shall detail the completion of interim milestones presented in the engineering dependency chart from the Notice of Planned Participation since the previous progress report, provide a narrative discussion of completed, missed, or delayed milestones, and provide updated milestones.

(5) Rollover certification. Where, prior to October 13, 2020, a discharger has already provided a notice to the permitting authority of opting to comply with the Voluntary Incentives Program requirements of §423.13(g)(3)(i), such notice will satisfy paragraph (j)(1) of this section. However, where details required by paragraph (j)(2) of this section were missing from the previously provided notice, those details must be provided in the first annual progress report, no later than October 13, 2021.

(k) Requirements for facilities with discharges of unmanaged combustion residual leachate(1) Annual combustion residual leachate monitoring report. In addition to reporting pursuant to 40 CFR part 127, each facility with discharges of unmanaged combustion residual leachate meeting the definition in §423.11(ff)(1) shall file an annual combustion residual leachate monitoring report each calendar year to the permitting authority.

(2) Contents. The annual combustion residual leachate monitoring report shall provide the following monitoring data for each pollutant listed in table 1 to paragraph (k)(2)(v) of this section. For paragraphs (k)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section the report shall also describe the location of monitoring wells, screening depth, and frequency of sampling. The report shall include summary statistics including monthly minimum, maximum, and average concentrations for each pollutant. The report shall be supported by an appendix of all samples.

(i) A list of coal combustion residual landfills and surface impoundments which the permitting authority has determined are point sources with functional equivalent direct discharges.

(ii) Groundwater monitoring data as the combustion residual leachate leaves each of the landfills or surface impoundment listed in paragraph (k)(2)(i) of this section.

(iii) Groundwater monitoring at the point the combustion residual leachate enters a surface waterbody.

(iv) Effluent monitoring data reported pursuant to 40 CFR part 127.

(v) Summary statistics for the data described in paragraphs (k)(2)(ii) through (iv) of this section including the monthly average and daily maximum of each pollutant in the table 1 to this paragraph (k)(2)(v) and a comparison to any limitation in §423.13(l)(2)(ii).

Table 1 to Paragraph
BAT Treated Pollutants in Combustion Residual Leachate
AntimonyMagnesium
ArsenicManganese
BariumMercury
BerylliumMolybdenum
CadmiumNickel
ChromiumThallium
CobaltTitanium
CopperVanadium
LeadZinc

(l) Requirements for facilities seeking to transfer between applicable limitations in a permit under this part(1) Notice of Planned Participation. For sources which have filed a Notice of Planned Participation under paragraph (f)(1), (g)(1), or (j)(1) of this section and intend to make changes that would qualify them for a different set of requirements under §423.13(o), a Notice of Planned Participation shall be made to the permitting authority, or to the control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, no later than the dates stated in §423.13(o)(1).

(2) Contents. A Notice of Planned Participation shall include a list of the electric generating units for which the source intends to change compliance alternatives. For each such electric generating unit, the notice shall list the specific provision under which this transfer will occur, the reason such a transfer is warranted, and a narrative discussion demonstrating that each electric generating unit will be able to maintain compliance with the relevant provisions.

(m) Notice of material delay(1) Notice. Within 30 days of experiencing a material delay in the milestones set forth in paragraph (g)(2), (h)(2), or (j)(2) of this section and where such a delay may preclude permanent cessation of coal combustion or compliance with the voluntary incentives program limitations by December 31, 2028, a facility shall file a notice of material delay with the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger.

(2) Contents. The contents of such a notice shall include the reason for the delay, the projected length of the delay, and a proposed resolution to maintain compliance.

(n) Requirements for facilities seeking a one-year flexibility to discharge permeate or distillate from an FGD wastewater or combustion residual leachate treatment system designed to achieve limitations in this part(1) Initial request letter. When filing a permit application or permit modification request, a facility seeking to discharge permeate or distillate during the first year of operations after the date determined in §423.13(g)(4)(i)(A) or (l)(1)(i)(A) shall include a letter requesting this flexibility from the permitting authority. The initial request letter shall detail the expected type, frequency, duration, and necessity of discharge. The initial request letter shall also state that this period of discharge was not included for consideration in establishing the applicability timing under §423.11(t)(3).

(2) Discharge monitoring and reporting. Upon inclusion in the permit of the flexibility to discharge the permeate or distillate as requested in paragraph (n)(1) of this section, the permitting authority shall also extend any existing monitoring and reporting requirements (e.g., arsenic monitoring).

(o) Certification for wastewater generated by a 10-year, 24-hour or longer duration storm event(1) Storm Event Discharge Certification Statement. For sources seeking to discharge low volume wastewater which would otherwise be considered FGD wastewater, bottom ash transport water, or combustion residual leachate but for a storm event exceeding a 10-year, 24-hour or longer duration storm event, a Storm Event Discharge Certification Statement shall be submitted to the permitting authority, or control authority in the case of an indirect discharger, no later than five business days from the last discharge.

(2) Signature and certification. The certification statement must be signed and certified by a professional engineer.

(3) Contents. A Storm Event Discharge Certification shall include the following:

(i) A statement that the professional engineer is a licensed professional engineer.

(ii) A statement that the professional engineer is familiar with the requirements in this part.

(iii) A statement that the professional engineer is familiar with the facility.

(iv) A statement that the facility experienced a storm event exceeding a 10-year, 24-hour or longer duration, including specifics of the actual storm event that are sufficient for a third party to verify the accuracy of the statement.

(v) A statement that a discharge of low volume wastewater that would otherwise meet the definition of FGD wastewater, bottom ash transport water, or combustion residual leachate was necessary, including a list of the best management practices at the site and a narrative discussion of the ability of on-site equipment and practices to manage the wastewater.

(vi) The duration and volume of any such discharge.

(vii) A statement that the discharge does not otherwise violate any other limitation or permit condition.

2024-05-09T05:00:00Z

EPA Final Rule: New Source Performance Standards for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is finalizing multiple actions under section 111 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) addressing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric generating units (EGUs). First, the EPA is finalizing the repeal of the Affordable Clean Energy (ACE) Rule. Second, the EPA is finalizing emission guidelines for GHG emissions from existing fossil fuel-fired steam generating EGUs, which include both coal-fired and oil/gas-fired steam generating EGUs. Third, the EPA is finalizing revisions to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for GHG emissions from new and reconstructed fossil fuel-fired stationary combustion turbine EGUs. Fourth, the EPA is finalizing revisions to the NSPS for GHG emissions from fossil fuel-fired steam generating units that undertake a large modification, based upon the 8-year review required by the CAA. The EPA is not finalizing emission guidelines for GHG emissions from existing fossil fuel-fired stationary combustion turbines at this time; instead, the EPA intends to take further action on the proposed emission guidelines at a later date.

DATES: This final rule is effective on July 8, 2024, published in the Federal Register May 9, 2024, page 39798.

View final rule.

EHS Monthly Round Up - April 2024

EHS Monthly Round Up - April 2024

In this monthly roundup video, we’ll review the most impactful environmental, safety, and health news.

Hi everyone! Welcome to the monthly news roundup video, where we’ll go over the most impactful environmental, health, and safety news. Please view the content links in the transcript for more information about the topics I’ll be covering today. Let’s get started!

OSHA’s worker walkaround rule takes effect May 31st. It expands the criteria for who employees can authorize to act as their representative during an inspection.

Between 2015 and 2022, there were about 1,500 worker injuries involving food processing machinery. A new OSHA alert raises awareness of these hazards. It addresses hazard recognition, corrective measures, and workers’ rights.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) seeks stakeholder input on protecting outdoor workers from wildfire smoke. The agency intends to develop a hazard review document that provides recommendations to protect workers.

The Mine Safety and Health Administration published a final rule that lowers miners’ exposure to silica dust. It also revises the standard to reflect the latest advances in respiratory protection and practices.

OSHA released 2023 injury and illness data. The agency provides public access to this information in an effort to identify unsafe conditions and workplace hazards that may lead to injuries and illnesses.

And turning to environmental news, EPA finalized a rule to designate two widely used PFAS as hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, or CERCLA. The rule requires immediate release notifications for the two PFAS. It also gives EPA the authority to hold polluters responsible for contamination.

Thanks for tuning in to the monthly news roundup. We’ll see you next month!

EHS Monthly Round Up - March 2024

EHS Monthly Round Up - March 2024

In this monthly roundup video, we’ll review the most impactful environmental, safety, and health news.

Hi everyone! Welcome to the monthly news roundup video, where we’ll go over the most impactful environmental, health, and safety news. Please view the content links in the transcript for more information about the topics I’ll be covering today. Let’s get started! The Office of Management and Budget completed its review of OSHA’s worker walkaround final rule on March 20. The next step is publication in the Federal Register. The rule expands the criteria for who employees can authorize to act as their representative during an OSHA inspection.

Stand Up 4 Grain Safety Week was held the week of March 25. This annual event brings attention to hazards in the grain handling and storage industry and encourages employers to focus on safe work practices.

Over 100 people die in ladder-related deaths each year, and thousands more suffer disabling injuries. During Ladder Safety Month, which is held each March, the American Ladder Institute promotes ladder safety to decrease the number of injuries and fatalities.

Between 2010 and 2023, 11 miners drowned in incidents involving submerged mobile equipment. In response, the Mine Safety and Health Administration issued a safety alert. It recommends measures miners should take when operating equipment near water.

And finally, turning to environmental news, EPA finalized amendments to its Risk Management Program in an effort to improve safety at facilities that use and distribute hazardous chemicals. The rule seeks to improve chemical process safety; assist in planning for, preparing for, and responding to accidents; and increase public awareness of chemical hazards at regulated sites.

Thanks for tuning in to the monthly news roundup. We’ll see you next month!

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Most Recent Highlights In Transportation

2024-05-08T05:00:00Z

EPA Final Rule: Methylene Chloride regulation under TSCA

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is finalizing a rule to address the unreasonable risk of injury to health presented by methylene chloride under its conditions of use. TSCA requires that EPA address by rule any unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment identified in a TSCA risk evaluation and apply requirements to the extent necessary so that the chemical no longer presents unreasonable risk. EPA's final rule will, among other things, prevent serious illness and death associated with uncontrolled exposures to the chemical by preventing consumer access to the chemical, restricting the industrial and commercial use of the chemical while also allowing for a reasonable transition period where an industrial and commercial use of the chemical is being prohibited, provide a time-limited exemption for a critical or essential use of methylene chloride for which no technically and economically feasible safer alternative is available, and protect workers from the unreasonable risk of methylene chloride while on the job.

DATES: This final rule is effective on July 8, 2024, published in the Federal Register, May 8, 2024.

View final rule.

§751.5 Definitions.
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§751.101 General.
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§751.103 Definitions.
definition of “Distribution in commerce”RevisedView text
definitions for “ECEL”, “ECEL action level”, and “EPA STEL”RevisedView text
§751.105 Consumer paint and coating removal.
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§751.107 Downstream notification.
Entire section as 751.111RedesignatedView text
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§751.109 Recordkeeping.
Entire section as 751.113RedesignatedView text
New 751.109AddedView text
§751.115 Exemptions.
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§751.117 Interim requirements for paint and coating removal for the refinishing of wooden furniture, decorative pieces, and architectural fixtures of artistic, cultural, or historic value.
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New Text

§751.101 General.

(a) Applicability. This subpart sets certain restrictions on the manufacture (including import), processing, distribution in commerce, use, and disposal of methylene chloride (CASRN 75-09-2) to prevent unreasonable risks of injury to health.

(b) De minimis threshold. Unless otherwise specified in this subpart, the prohibitions and restrictions of this subpart do not apply to products containing methylene chloride at thresholds less than 0.1 percent by weight. This provision does not apply to 751.105.

§751.103 Definitions.

* * * * *

Distribution in commerce has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Act, except that the term does not include retailers for purposes of §§751.111 and 751.113.

* * * * *

§751.105 Prohibition of manufacturing (including import), processing, and distribution in commerce related to consumer paint and coating removal.

§751.107 Other prohibitions of manufacturing (including import), processing, distribution in commerce, and use.

(a) Applicability.(1) This section applies to all manufacturing (including import), processing, and distribution in commerce of methylene chloride for consumer use other than for the paint and coating removal use addressed under 751.105.

(2) This section applies to:

(i) All manufacturing (including import), processing, and distribution in commerce of methylene chloride for industrial or commercial use, other than for the conditions of use addressed under 751.109(a); and

(ii) All commercial or industrial use of methylene chloride, other than the conditions of use addressed under 751.109(a).

(3) This section does not apply to manufacturing, processing, or distribution in commerce of methylene chloride solely for export that meets the conditions described in TSCA section 12(a)(1)(A) and (B).

(b) Prohibitions.(1) After February 3, 2025, all persons are prohibited from distributing in commerce (including making available) methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride-containing products, to retailers for any use.

(2) After May 5, 2025, all retailers are prohibited from distributing in commerce (including making available) methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride-containing products, for any use.

(3) After May 5, 2025, all persons are prohibited from manufacturing (including import) methylene chloride, for the uses listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section except for those uses specified in paragraphs (b)(7) through (9) of this section.

(4) After August 1, 2025, all persons are prohibited from processing methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride-containing products, for the uses listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section except for those uses specified in paragraphs (b)(7) through (9) of this section.

(5) After January 28, 2026, all persons are prohibited from distributing in commerce (including making available) methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride-containing products, for any use described in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section except for those uses specified in paragraphs (b)(7) through (9) of this section.

(6) After April 28, 2026, all persons are prohibited from industrial or commercial use of methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride containing products, for the uses listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section except for those uses specified in paragraphs (b)(7) through (9) of this section.

(7) After May 8, 2034, all persons are prohibited from manufacturing (including import), processing, distribution in commerce, or use of methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride containing products, for industrial or commercial use in an emergency by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or its contractors as described in 751.115(b).

(8) After May 8, 2029, all persons are prohibited from manufacturing (including import), processing, distribution in commerce, or use of methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride containing products, for industrial or commercial use for paint and coating removal for refinishing of wooden furniture, decorative pieces and architectural fixtures of artistic, cultural, or historic significance, with interim requirements as described in 751.117.

(9) After May 8, 2029, all persons are prohibited from manufacturing (including import), processing, distribution in commerce, or use of methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride-containing products, for industrial or commercial use for adhesives and sealants in aircraft, space vehicle, and turbine applications for structural and safety critical non-structural applications.

§751.109 Workplace Chemical Protection Program.

(a) Applicability. The provisions of this section apply to the following conditions of use of methylene chloride, including manufacturing and processing for export, except to the extent the conditions of use are prohibited by §§751.105 and 751.107:

(1) Manufacturing (domestic manufacture);

(2) Manufacturing (import);

(3) Processing: as a reactant;

(4) Processing: incorporation into a formulation, mixture, or reaction product;

(5) Processing: repackaging;

(6) Processing: recycling;

(7) Industrial and commercial use as a laboratory chemical;

(8) Industrial or commercial use for paint and coating removal from safety-critical, corrosion-sensitive components of aircraft and spacecraft;

(9) Industrial or commercial use as a bonding agent for solvent welding;

(10) Industrial and commercial use as a processing aid;

(11) Industrial and commercial use for plastic and rubber products manufacturing;

(12) Industrial and commercial use as a solvent that becomes part of a formulation or mixture, where that formulation or mixture will be used inside a manufacturing process, and the solvent (methylene chloride) will be reclaimed; and

(13) Disposal.

(b) Relationship to other regulations. For purposes of this section:

(1) Any provisions applying to “employee” in 29 CFR 1910.132, 1910.134, and 1910.1052 also apply equally to potentially exposed persons; and

(2) Any provisions applying to “employer” in 29 CFR 1910.132, 1910.134, and 1910.1052 also apply equally to any owner or operator for the regulated area.

(c) Exposure limits(1) ECEL. The owner or operator must ensure that no person is exposed to an airborne concentration of methylene chloride in excess of 2 parts of methylene chloride per million parts of air (2 ppm) as an 8-hour TWA after February 8, 2027 for Federal agencies and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Federal Government, August 1, 2025 for other owners and operators, or beginning 4 months after introduction of methylene chloride into the workplace if methylene chloride use commences after May 5, 2025, consistent with paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section.

(2) EPA STEL. The owner or operator must ensure that no person is exposed to an airborne concentration of methylene chloride in excess of 16 parts of methylene chloride per million parts of air (16 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes after February 8, 2027 for Federal agencies and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Federal Government, August 1, 2025 for other owners and operators, or beginning 4 months after introduction of methylene chloride into the workplace if methylene chloride use commences after May 5, 2025, consistent with paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section.

(3) Regulated areas. The owner or operator must:

(i) Establish and maintain regulated areas in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1052(e)(2) and (4) through (7) by February 8, 2027 for Federal agencies and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Federal Government, August 1, 2025 for other owners and operators, or within 3 months after receipt of the results of any monitoring data consistent with paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Establish a regulated area wherever a potentially exposed person's exposure to airborne concentrations of methylene chloride exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed either the ECEL or EPA STEL.

(iii) Demarcate regulated areas from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts potentially exposed persons to the boundaries of the area and minimizes the number of authorized persons exposed to methylene chloride within the regulated area.

(iv) Restrict access to the regulated area by any potentially exposed person who lacks proper training, personal protective equipment, or is otherwise unauthorized to enter.

(d) Exposure monitoring(1) In general(i) Characterization of exposures. Owners or operators must determine each potentially exposed person's exposure, without regard to respiratory protection, by either:

(A) Taking a personal breathing zone air sample of each potentially exposed person's exposure; or

(B) Taking personal breathing zone air samples that are representative of each potentially exposed person's exposure.

(ii) Representative samples. Owners or operators are permitted to consider personal breathing zone air samples to be representative of each potentially exposed person's exposure, without regard to respiratory protection, when they are taken as follows:

(A) ECEL. The owner or operator has taken one or more personal breathing zone air samples for at least one potentially exposed person in each job classification in a work area during every work shift, and the person sampled is expected to have the highest methylene chloride exposure.

(B) EPA STEL. The owner or operator has taken one or more personal breathing zone air samples which indicate the highest likely 15-minute exposures during such operations for at least one potentially exposed person in each job classification in the work area during every work shift, and the person sampled is expected to have the highest methylene chloride exposure.

(C) Exception. Personal breathing zone air samples taken during one work shift may be used to represent potentially exposed person exposures on other work shifts where the owner or operator can document that the tasks performed and conditions in the workplace are similar across shifts.

(iii) Accuracy of monitoring. Owners or operators must ensure that the methods used to perform exposure monitoring produce results that are accurate to a confidence level of 95%, and are:

(A) Within plus or minus 25% for airborne concentrations of methylene chloride above the ECEL or the EPA STEL; or

(B) Within plus or minus 35% for airborne concentrations of methylene chloride at or above the ECEL action level but at or below the ECEL.

(iv) Currency of monitoring data. Owners or operators are not permitted to rely on monitoring data that is more than 5 years old to demonstrate compliance with initial or periodic monitoring requirements for either the ECEL or the EPA STEL.

(2) Initial monitoring. By November 9, 2026 for Federal agencies and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Federal Government, by May 5, 2025 for other owners and operators, or within 30 days of introduction of methylene chloride into the workplace, whichever is later, each owner or operator covered by this section must perform an initial exposure monitoring to determine each potentially exposed person's exposure, unless:

(i) An owner or operator has objective data generated within the last 5 years prior to May 8, 2024 that demonstrates to EPA that methylene chloride cannot be released in the workplace in airborne concentrations at or above the ECEL action level (1-ppm 8-hour TWA) or above the EPA STEL (16 ppm 15-minute TWA) and that the data represents the highest methylene chloride exposures likely to occur under conditions of use described in paragraph (a) of this section; or

(ii) Where potentially exposed persons are exposed to methylene chloride for fewer than 30 days per year, and the owner or operator has measurements by direct-metering devices which give immediate results and which provide sufficient information regarding exposures to determine and implement the control measures that are necessary to reduce exposures to below the ECEL action level and EPA STEL.

(3) Periodic monitoring. The owner or operator must establish an exposure monitoring program for periodic monitoring of exposure to methylene chloride in accordance with table 1.

Table 1 to Paragraph (d)(3)—Periodic Monitoring Requirements Based on Initial Exposure Monitoring Results
Air concentration condition observed during initial exposure monitoring Periodic monitoring requirement
If the initial exposure monitoring concentration is below the ECEL action level and at or below the EPA STELECEL and EPA STEL periodic monitoring at least once in every 5 years.
If the initial exposure monitoring concentration is below the ECEL action level and above the EPA STELECEL periodic required at least once every 5 years, and EPA STEL periodic monitoring required every 3 months.
If the initial exposure monitoring concentration is at or above the ECEL action level and at or below the ECEL; and at or below the EPA STELECEL periodic monitoring every 6 months.
If the initial exposure monitoring concentration is at or above the ECEL action level and at or below the ECEL; and above the EPA STELECEL periodic monitoring every 6 months and EPA STEL periodic monitoring every 3 months.
If the initial exposure monitoring concentration is above the ECEL and below, at, or above the EPA STELECEL periodic monitoring every 3 months and EPA STEL periodic monitoring every 3 months.
If 2 consecutive monitoring events have taken place at least 7 days apart that indicate that potential exposure has decreased from above the ECEL to at or below the ECEL, but at or above the ECEL action levelTransition from ECEL periodic monitoring frequency from every 3 months to every 6 months.
If 2 consecutive monitoring events have taken place at least 7 days apart that indicate that potential exposure has decreased to below the ECEL action level and at or below the EPA STELTransition from ECEL periodic monitoring frequency from every 6 months to once every 5 years. The second consecutive monitoring event will delineate the new date from which the next 5-year periodic exposure monitoring must occur.
If the owner or operator engages in any conditions of use described in paragraph (a) of this section and is required to monitor either the ECEL or EPA STEL in a 3-month interval, but does not engage in any of those uses for the entirety of the 3-month intervalThe owner or operator may forgo the upcoming periodic monitoring event. However, documentation of cessation of use of methylene chloride must be maintained, and initial monitoring is required when the owner or operator resumes or starts any of the conditions of use described in paragraph (a) of this section.
Owner or operator engages in any conditions of use described in paragraph (a) of this section and is required to monitor the ECEL in a 6-month interval, but does not engage in any of those uses for the entirety of the 6-month intervalThe owner or operator may forgo the upcoming periodic monitoring event. However, documentation of cessation of the condition(s) of use must be maintained until periodic monitoring resumes, and initial monitoring is required when the owner or operator resumes or starts any of the conditions of use described in paragraph (a) of this section.

(4) Additional monitoring. The owner or operator must conduct the exposure monitoring required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section within 30 days after any change that may reasonably be expected to introduce additional sources of exposure to methylene chloride, or otherwise result in increased exposure to methylene chloride compared to the most recent monitoring event. Examples of situations that may require additional monitoring include changes in production, process, control equipment, or work practices, or a leak, rupture, or other breakdown.

(5) Notification of monitoring results.(i) The owner or operator must inform potentially exposed persons of monitoring results within 15 working days.

(ii) This notification must include the following:

(A) Exposure monitoring results;

(B) Identification and explanation of the ECEL, ECEL Action Level, and EPA STEL;

(C) Whether the airborne concentration of methylene chloride exceeds the ECEL action level, ECEL or the EPA STEL;

(D) If the ECEL or EPA STEL is exceeded, descriptions of actions taken by the owner or operator to reduce exposure in accordance with paragraph (e)(1)((i) of this section;

(E) Explanation of any required respiratory protection provided in accordance with as paragraphs (e)(1)(ii) and (f) of this section;

(F) Quantity of methylene chloride in use at the time of monitoring;

(G) Location of methylene chloride use at the time of monitoring;

(H) Manner of methylene chloride use at the time of monitoring; and

(I) Identified releases of methylene chloride.

(iii) Notice must be provided in plain language writing, in a language that the person understands, to each potentially exposed person or posted in an appropriate and accessible location outside the regulated area with an English-language version and a non-English language version representing the language of the largest group of workers who do not read English.

(6) Observation of monitoring.(i) The owner or operator must provide affected potentially exposed persons an opportunity to observe exposure monitoring conducted in accordance with this paragraph (d) that is representative of the potentially exposed person's exposure.

(ii) The owner or operator must ensure that potentially exposed persons are provided with personal protective equipment appropriate for the observation of monitoring.

(e) ECEL control procedures and plan(1) Methods of compliance.(i) By May 10, 2027 for Federal agencies and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Federal Government, or by October 30, 2025 for other owners and operators, the owner or operator must institute one or a combination of elimination, substitution, engineering controls, work practices, or administrative controls to reduce exposure to or below the ECEL and EPA STEL except to the extent that the owner or operator can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) If the feasible controls, required by paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section that can be instituted do not reduce exposures for potentially exposed persons to or below the ECEL or EPA STEL, then the owner or operator must use such controls to reduce exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and must supplement those controls with the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section to reduce exposures to or below the ECEL or EPA STEL.

(iii) Where an owner or operator cannot demonstrate exposure below the ECEL, including through the use of all feasible engineering controls, work practices, or administrative controls as described in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section, and, has not demonstrated that it has appropriately supplemented with respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraphs (e)(1)(ii) and (f) of this section, this will constitute a failure to comply with the ECEL.

(iv) For the Department of Defense and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Department of Defense, in the event that ongoing or planned construction is necessary to implement the feasible controls required by paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section such that no one is exposed above the ECEL or EPA STEL, the deadlines in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section are extended to May 7, 2029. Ongoing or planned construction efforts to address exposures above the ECEL and EPA STEL must be documented in the exposure control plan required by paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(2) Exposure control plan. By May 10, 2027 for Federal agencies and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Federal Government, or by October 30, 2025 for other owners and operators, the owner or operator must develop and implement an exposure control plan.

(i) Exposure control plan contents. The exposure control plan must include documentation of the following:

(A) Identification of exposure controls that were considered, including those that were used or not used to meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section, in the following sequence—elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and work practices and administrative controls;

(B) For each exposure control considered, a rationale for why the exposure control was selected or not selected based on feasibility, effectiveness, and other relevant considerations;

(C) A description of actions the owner or operator must take to implement the exposure controls selected, including proper installation, regular inspections, maintenance, training, or other actions;

(D) A description of regulated areas, how they are demarcated, and persons authorized to enter the regulated areas;

(E) A description of activities conducted by the owner or operator to review and update the exposure control plan to ensure effectiveness of the exposure controls, identify any necessary updates to the exposure controls, and confirm that all persons are properly implementing the exposure controls; and

(F) An explanation of the procedures for responding to any change that may reasonably be expected to introduce additional sources of exposure to methylene chloride, or otherwise result in increased exposure to methylene chloride, including procedures for implementing corrective actions to mitigate exposure to methylene chloride.

(ii) Exposure control plan requirements.(A) The owner or operator must not implement a schedule of personnel rotation as a means of compliance with the ECEL.

(B) The owner or operator must maintain the effectiveness of any controls, instituted under paragraph (e) of this section.

(C) The exposure control plan must be reviewed and updated as necessary, but at least every 5 years, to reflect any significant changes in the status of the owner or operator's approach to compliance with paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section.

(iii) Availability of exposure control plan.(A) Owners or operators must make the exposure control plan and associated records, including exposure monitoring, respiratory protection program implementation, and dermal protection program implementation records, available to potentially exposed persons.

(B) Owners or operators must notify potentially exposed persons of the availability of the plan and associated records within 30 days of the date that the exposure control plan is completed and at least annually thereafter. The notification must be provided in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (d)(5)(iii) of this section.

(C) Upon request by the potentially exposed person, the owner or operator must provide the specified records at a reasonable time, place, and manner. If the owner or operator is unable to provide the requested records within 15 days, the owner or operator must, within those 15 days, inform the potentially exposed person requesting the record(s) of the reason for the delay and the earliest date when the record can be made available.

(3) Respirator requirements. The owner or operator must supply a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section, to each potentially exposed person who enters a regulated area and must ensure each potentially exposed person uses that respirator whenever methylene chloride exposures may exceed the ECEL or EPA STEL.

(f) Respiratory protection(1) Respirator conditions. After February 8, 2027 for Federal agencies and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Federal Government, after August 1, 2025 for other owners and operators, or within 3 months after receipt of the results of any exposure monitoring as described in paragraph (d) of this section, owners or operators must provide respiratory protection to all potentially exposed persons in the regulated area as outlined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, and according to the provisions outlined in 29 CFR 1910.134(a) through (l) (except 29 CFR 1910.134(d)(1)(iii)) and as specified in this paragraph (f) for potentially exposed persons exposed to methylene chloride in concentrations above the ECEL or the EPA STEL. For the purpose of this paragraph (f), the maximum use concentration (MUC) as used in 29 CFR 1910.134 must be calculated by multiplying the assigned protection factor (APF) specified for a respirator by the ECEL or EPA STEL.

(2) Respirator selection criteria. The type of respiratory protection that regulated entities must select and provide to potentially exposed persons in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1052(g)(3)(i), is directly related to the monitoring results, as follows:

(i) If the measured exposure concentration is at or below the ECEL or EPA STEL: no respiratory protection is required.

(ii) If the measured exposure concentration is above 2 ppm and less than or equal to 50 ppm: the respirator protection required is any NIOSH Approved® supplied-air respirator (SAR) or airline respirator in a continuous-flow mode equipped with a loose-fitting facepiece or helmet/hood (APF 25).

(iii) If the measured exposure concentration is above 50 ppm and less than or equal to 100 ppm the respirator protection required is:

(A) Any NIOSH Approved® Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) or airline respirator in a demand mode equipped with a full facepiece (APF 50); or

(B) Any NIOSH Approved® Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) in demand-mode equipped with a full facepiece or helmet/hood (APF 50).

(iv) If the measured exposure concentration is unknown or at any value above 100 ppm and up to 2,000 ppm the respirator protection required is:

(A) Any NIOSH Approved® Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) or airline respirator in a continuous-flow mode equipped with a full facepiece or certified helmet/hood that has been tested to demonstrate performance at a level of a protection of APF 1,000 or greater. (APF 1,000); or

(B) Any NIOSH Approved® Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) or airline respirator in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode equipped with a full facepiece and an auxiliary self-contained air supply (APF 1,000); or

(C) Any NIOSH Approved® Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode equipped with a full facepiece or certified helmet/hood (APF 10,000).

(3) Minimal respiratory protection. Requirements outlined in paragraph (e)(2) of this section represent the minimum respiratory protection requirements, such that any respirator affording a higher degree of protection than the required respirator may be used.

(g) Dermal protection.(1) After February 8, 2027 for Federal agencies and Federal contractors acting for or on behalf of the Federal Government, or after August 1, 2025 for other owners and operators, owners or operators must require the donning of gloves that are chemically resistant to methylene chloride with activity-specific training where dermal contact with methylene chloride is possible, after application of the requirements in paragraph (e) of this section, in accordance with the NIOSH hierarchy of controls.

(2) Owners or operators must minimize and protect potentially exposed persons from dermal exposure in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1052(h) and (i).

(h) Training. Owners or operators must provide training in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1052(l)(1) through (6) to potentially exposed persons prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to methylene chloride. In addition, if respiratory protection or PPE must be worn within a regulated area, owners or operators must provide training in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.132(f) to potentially exposed persons within that regulated area.

§751.111 Downstream notification.

(a) After August 26, 2019, and before October 7, 2024, each person who manufactures (including imports), and before December 4, 2024 processes or distributes in commerce methylene chloride for any use must, prior to or concurrent with the shipment, notify companies to whom methylene chloride is shipped, in writing, of the restrictions described in §751.105. Notification must occur by inserting the following text in section 1(c) and section 15 of the SDS provided with the methylene chloride or with any methylene chloride-containing product:

This chemical/product is not and cannot be distributed in commerce (as defined in TSCA section 3(5)) or processed (as defined in TSCA section 3(13)) for consumer paint or coating removal.

(b) Beginning on October 7, 2024, each person who manufactures (including import) methylene chloride for any use must, prior to or concurrent with the shipment, notify companies to whom methylene chloride is shipped, in writing, of the restrictions described in this subpart in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(c) Beginning on December 4, 2024, each person who processes or distributes in commerce methylene chloride or methylene chloride-containing products for any use must, prior to or concurrent with the shipment, notify companies to whom methylene chloride is shipped, in writing, of the restrictions described in this subpart in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) The notification required under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section must occur by inserting the following text in section 1(c) and section 15 of the SDS provided with the methylene chloride or with any methylene chloride-containing product:

After February 3, 2025, this chemical substance (as defined in TSCA section 3(2))/product cannot be distributed in commerce to retailers. After January 28, 2026, this chemical substance (as defined in TSCA section 3(2))/product is and can only be distributed in commerce or processed with a concentration of methylene chloride equal to or greater than 0.1% by weight for the following purposes: (1) Processing as a reactant; (2) Processing for incorporation into a formulation, mixture, or reaction product; (3) Processing for repackaging; (4) Processing for recycling; (5) Industrial or commercial use as a laboratory chemical; (6) Industrial or commercial use as a bonding agent for solvent welding; (7) Industrial and commercial use as a paint and coating remover from safety critical, corrosion-sensitive components of aircraft and spacecraft; (8) Industrial and commercial use as a processing aid; (9) Industrial and commercial use for plastic and rubber products manufacturing; (10) Industrial and commercial use as a solvent that becomes part of a formulation or mixture, where that formulation or mixture will be used inside a manufacturing process, and the solvent (methylene chloride) will be reclaimed; (11) Industrial and commercial use in the refinishing for wooden furniture, decorative pieces, and architectural fixtures of artistic, cultural or historic value until May 8, 2029; (12) Industrial and commercial use in adhesives and sealants in aircraft, space vehicle, and turbine applications for structural and safety critical non-structural applications until May 8, 2029; (13) Disposal; and (14) Export.

§751.113 Recordkeeping requirements.

(a) General records. Each person who manufactures (including imports), processes, or distributes in commerce any methylene chloride after August 26, 2019, must retain in one location at the headquarters of the company, or at the facility for which the records were generated beginning July 8, 2024, documentation showing:

(1) The name, address, contact, and telephone number of companies to whom methylene chloride was shipped;

(2) A copy of the notification provided under §751.111; and

(3) The amount of methylene chloride shipped.

(b) Exposure control records. Owners or operators must retain records of:

(1) The exposure control plan as described in §751.109(e)(2);

(2) Implementation of the exposure control plan described in §751.109(e)(2), including:

(i) Any regular inspections, evaluations, and updating of the exposure controls to maintain effectiveness; and

(ii) Confirmation that all persons are properly implementing the exposure controls.

(3) Personal protective equipment (PPE) and respiratory protection used by potentially exposed persons and program implementation, including fit-testing, pursuant to §751.109(f) and (g);

(4) Information and training provided pursuant to §751.109(h); and

(5) Occurrence and duration of any start-up, shutdown, or malfunction of exposure controls or of facility equipment that causes air concentrations to be above the ECEL or EPA STEL and subsequent corrective actions taken during start-up, shutdown, or malfunctions to mitigate exposures to methylene chloride.

(c) Objective data. Objective data generated during the previous 5 years, when used to forgo the initial exposure monitoring, must include:

(1) The use of methylene chloride being evaluated;

(2) The source of objective data;

(3) The measurement methods, measurement results, and measurement analysis of the use of methylene chloride; and

(4) Any other relevant data to the operations, processes, or person's exposure.

(d) Exposure monitoring records.(1) Owners or operators are required to retain monitoring records that include, at minimum, the information described at 29 CFR 1910.1052(m)(2)(ii)(A) through (F). For the purposes of this paragraph (d)(1), cross-referenced provisions in 29 CFR 1910.1052(m)(2)(ii) applying to an “employee” apply equally to potentially exposed persons and cross-referenced provisions applying to an “employer” also apply equally to owners or operators.

(2) For each monitoring event of methylene chloride required under this subpart, owners or operators must also document the following:

(i) All measurements that may be necessary to determine the conditions that may affect the monitoring results;

(ii) The identity of all other potentially exposed persons whose exposure was not measured and whose exposure is intended to be represented by the area or representative sampling monitoring;

(iii) Use of established analytical methods;

(iv) Compliance with the Good Laboratory Practice Standards in accordance with 40 CFR part 792 or use of a laboratory accredited by the AIHA or another industry-recognized program; and

(v) Information regarding air monitoring equipment including: Type, maintenance, calibrations, performance tests, limits of detection, and any malfunctions.

(3) Owners or operators must maintain copies of exposure monitoring notifications provided pursuant to §751.109(d)(5).

(e) Availability of exposure control plans. Owners or operators must document the notice to and ability of any potentially exposed persons to access the exposure control plan and other associated records in accordance with §751.109(e)(2)(iii).

(f) Records related to exemptions. To maintain eligibility for an exemption described in §751.115, the records maintained by the owners or operators must demonstrate compliance with the specific conditions of the exemption.

(g) Records related to the refinishing of wooden furniture, decorative pieces, and architectural fixtures.(1) Owners and operators of workplaces engaged in the industrial or commercial use of methylene chloride for the refinishing of wooden furniture, decorative pieces, and architectural fixtures of artistic, cultural, or historic value must document each instance of refinishing such pieces.

(2) The documentation required by paragraph (g)(1) of this section must include:

(i) The date of the refinishing activity;

(ii) A description of the wooden piece that was refinished and an explanation of its artistic, cultural, or historic value;

(iii) The name of the owner of the refinished wooden piece;

(iv) The name of the individual(s) that refinished the wooden piece;

(v) A description of the methylene chloride product used and the quantity of the product used to perform the refinishing; and

(vi) Records demonstrating compliance with the requirements of §751.117.

(h) Minimum record retention period. The records required under this section must be retained for at least 5 years from the date that such records were generated.