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(a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding conductors. (1) Identification of conductors. (i) A conductor used as a grounded conductor shall be identifiable and distinguishable from all other conductors.
(ii) A conductor used as an equipment grounding conductor shall be identifiable and distinguishable from all other conductors.
(2) Polarity of connections. No grounded conductor may be attached to any terminal or lead so as to reverse designated polarity.
(3) Use of grounding terminals and devices. A grounding terminal or grounding-type device on a receptacle, cord connector, or attachment plug may not be used for purposes other than grounding.
(b) Branch circuits. (1) Identification of multiwire branch circuits. Where more than one nominal voltage system exists in a building containing multiwire branch circuits, each ungrounded conductor of a multiwire branch circuit, where accessible, shall be identified by phase and system. The means of identification shall be permanently posted at each branch-circuit panelboard.
(2) Receptacles and cord connectors. (i) Receptacles installed on 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits shall be of the grounding type except as permitted for replacement receptacles in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. Grounding-type receptacles shall be installed only on circuits of the voltage class and current for which they are rated, except as provided in Table S–4 and Table S–5.
(ii) Receptacles and cord connectors having grounding contacts shall have those contacts effectively grounded except for receptacles mounted on portable and vehicle-mounted generators in accordance with paragraph (g)(3) of this section and replacement receptacles installed in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section.
(iii) The grounding contacts of receptacles and cord connectors shall be grounded by connection to the equipment grounding conductor of the circuit supplying the receptacle or cord connector. The branch circuit wiring method shall include or provide an equipment grounding conductor to which the grounding contacts of the receptacle or cord connector shall be connected.
(iv) Replacement of receptacles shall comply with the following requirements:
(A) Where a grounding means exists in the receptacle enclosure or a grounding conductor is installed, grounding-type receptacles shall be used and shall be connected to the grounding means or conductor;
(B) Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protected receptacles shall be provided where replacements are made at receptacle outlets that are required to be so protected elsewhere in this subpart; and
(C) Where a grounding means does not exist in the receptacle enclosure, the installation shall comply with one of the following provisions:
(1) A nongrounding-type receptacle may be replaced with another nongrounding-type receptacle; or
(2) A nongrounding-type receptacle may be replaced with a ground-fault circuit-interrupter-type of receptacle that is marked “No Equipment Ground;” an equipment grounding conductor may not be connected from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter-type receptacle to any outlet supplied from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter receptacle; or
(3) A nongrounding-type receptacle may be replaced with a grounding-type receptacle where supplied through a ground-fault circuit-interrupter; the replacement receptacle shall be marked “GFCI Protected” and “No Equipment Ground;” an equipment grounding conductor may not be connected to such grounding-type receptacles.
(v) Receptacles connected to circuits having different voltages, frequencies, or types of current (ac or dc) on the same premises shall be of such design that the attachment plugs used on these circuits are not interchangeable.
(3) Ground-fault circuit interrupter protection for personnel. (i) All 125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed in bathrooms or on rooftops shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel.
(ii) The following requirements apply to temporary wiring installations that are used during construction-like activities, including certain maintenance, remodeling, or repair activities, involving buildings, structures, or equipment.
(A) All 125-volt, single-phase, 15-, 20-, and 30-ampere receptacle outlets that are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and that are in use by personnel shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel.
Note 1 to paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(A) of this section: A cord connector on an extension cord set is considered to be a receptacle outlet if the cord set is used for temporary electric power.
Note 2 to paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(A) of this section: Cord sets and devices incorporating the required ground-fault circuit-interrupter that are connected to the receptacle closest to the source of power are acceptable forms of protection.
(B) Receptacles other than 125 volt, single-phase, 15-, 20-, and 30-ampere receptacles that are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and that are in use by personnel shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel.
(C) Where the ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection required by paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(B) of this section is not available for receptacles other than 125-volt, single-phase, 15-, 20-, and 30- ampere, the employer shall establish and implement an assured equipment grounding conductor program covering cord sets, receptacles that are not a part of the building or structure, and equipment connected by cord and plug that are available for use or used by employees on those receptacles. This program shall comply with the following requirements:
(1) A written description of the program, including the specific procedures adopted by the employer, shall be available at the jobsite for inspection and copying by the Assistant Secretary of Labor and any affected employee;
(2) The employer shall designate one or more competent persons to implement the program;
(3) Each cord set, attachment cap, plug, and receptacle of cord sets, and any equipment connected by cord and plug, except cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage, shall be visually inspected before each day’s use for external defects, such as deformed or missing pins or insulation damage, and for indications of possible internal damage. Equipment found damaged or defective shall not be used until repaired;
(4) The following tests shall be performed on all cord sets and receptacles which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure, and cord- and plug-connected equipment required to be grounded:
(i) All equipment grounding conductors shall be tested for continuity and shall be electrically continuous;
(ii) Each receptacle and attachment cap or plug shall be tested for correct attachment of the equipment grounding conductor. The equipment grounding conductor shall be connected to its proper terminal; and
(iii) All required tests shall be performed before first use; before equipment is returned to service following any repairs; before equipment is used after any incident which can be reasonably suspected to have caused damage (for example, when a cord set is run over); and at intervals not to exceed 3 months, except that cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage shall be tested at intervals not exceeding 6 months;
(5) The employer shall not make available or permit the use by employees of any equipment which has not met the requirements of paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(C) of this section; and
(6) Tests performed as required in paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(C) of this section shall be recorded. This test record shall identify each receptacle, cord set, and cord- and plug-connected equipment that passed the test and shall indicate the last date it was tested or the interval for which it was tested. This record shall be kept by means of logs, color coding, or other effective means and shall be maintained until replaced by a more current record. The record shall be made available on the jobsite for inspection by the Assistant Secretary and any affected employee.
(4) Outlet devices. Outlet devices shall have an ampere rating not less than the load to be served and shall comply with the following provisions:
(i) Where connected to a branch circuit having a rating in excess of 20 amperes, lampholders shall be of the heavy-duty type. A heavy-duty lampholder shall have a rating of not less than 660 watts if of the admedium type and not less than 750 watts if of any other type; and
(ii) Receptacle outlets shall comply with the following provisions:
(A) A single receptacle installed on an individual branch circuit shall have an ampere rating of not less than that of the branch circuit;
(B) Where connected to a branch circuit supplying two or more receptacles or outlets, a receptacle may not supply a total cord- and plug-connected load in excess of the maximum specified in Table S–4; and
(C) Where connected to a branch circuit supplying two or more receptacles or outlets, receptacle ratings shall conform to the values listed in Table S–5; or, where larger than 50 amperes, the receptacle rating may not be less than the branch-circuit rating. However, receptacles of cord- and plug-connected arc welders may have ampere ratings not less than the minimum branch-circuit conductor ampacity.
(5) Cord connections. A receptacle outlet shall be installed wherever flexible cords with attachment plugs are used. Where flexible cords are permitted to be permanently connected, receptacles may be omitted.
|Circuit rating (amperes)||Receptacle rating (amperes)||Maximum load (amperes)|
|15 or 20||15||12|
|Circuit rating (amperes)||Receptacle rating (amperes)|
|15||Not over 15|
|20||15 or 20|
|40||40 or 50|
(c) Outside conductors, 600 volts, nominal, or less. The following requirements apply to branch-circuit, feeder, and service conductors rated 600 volts, nominal, or less and run outdoors as open conductors.
(1) Conductors on poles. Conductors on poles shall have a separation of not less than 305 mm (1.0 ft) where not placed on racks or brackets. Conductors supported on poles shall provide a horizontal climbing space not less than the following:
(i) Power conductors below communication conductors — 762 mm (30 in.);
(ii) Power conductors alone or above communication conductors:
(A) 300 volts or less — 610 mm (24 in.),
(B) Over 300 volts — 762 mm (30 in.);
(iii) Communication conductors below power conductors — same as power conductors; and
(iv) Communications conductors alone — no requirement.
(2) Clearance from ground. Open conductors, open multiconductor cables, and service-drop conductors of not over 600 volts, nominal, shall conform to the minimum clearances specified in Table S–6.
|Distance||Installations built before August 13, 2007||Installations built on or after August 13, 2007|
|Maximum voltage||Conditions||Voltage to ground||Conditions|
|3.05 m (10.0 ft)||< 600 V||Above finished grade or sidewalks, or from any platform or projection from which they might be reached. (If these areas are accessible to other than pedestrian traffic, then one of the other conditions applies).||< 150 V||Above finished grade or sidewalks, or from any platform or projection from which they might be reached. (If these areas are accessible to other than pedestrian traffic, then one of the other conditions applies.)|
|3.66 m (12.0 ft)||< 600 V||Over areas, other than public streets, alleys, roads, and driveways, subject to vehicular traffic other than truck traffic.||< 300 V||Over residential property and driveways. Over commercial areas subject to pedestrian traffic or to vehicular traffic other than truck traffic. (This category includes conditions covered under the 3.05-m (10.0-ft) category where the voltage exceeds 150 V.)|
|4.57 m (15.0 ft)||< 600 V||Over areas, other than public streets, alleys, roads, and driveways, subject to truck traffic.||301 to 600 V||Over residential property and driveways. Over commercial areas subject to pedestrian traffic or to vehicular traffic other than truck traffic. (This category includes conditions covered under the 3.05-m (10.0-ft) category where the voltage exceeds 300 V.)|
|5.49 m (18.0 ft)||< 600 V||Over public streets, alleys, roads, and driveways.||< 600 V||Over public streets, alleys, roads, and driveways. Over commercial areas subject to truck traffic. Other land traversed by vehicles, including land used for cultivating or grazing and forests and orchards.|
(3) Clearance from building openings. (i) Service conductors installed as open conductors or multiconductor cable without an overall outer jacket shall have a clearance of not less than 914 mm (3.0 ft) from windows that are designed to be opened, doors, porches, balconies, ladders, stairs, fire escapes, and similar locations. However, conductors that run above the top level of a window may be less than 914 mm (3.0 ft) from the window. Vertical clearance of final spans above, or within 914 mm (3.0 ft) measured horizontally of, platforms, projections, or surfaces from which they might be reached shall be maintained in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
(ii) Overhead service conductors may not be installed beneath openings through which materials may be moved, such as openings in farm and commercial buildings, and may not be installed where they will obstruct entrance to these building openings.
(4) Above roofs. Overhead spans of open conductors and open multiconductor cables shall have a vertical clearance of not less than 2.44 m (8.0 ft) above the roof surface. The vertical clearance above the roof level shall be maintained for a distance not less than 914 mm (3.0 ft) in all directions from the edge of the roof.
(i) The area above a roof surface subject to pedestrian or vehicular traffic shall have a vertical clearance from the roof surface in accordance with the clearance requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
(ii) A reduction in clearance to 914 mm (3.0 ft) is permitted where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300 and the roof has a slope of 102 mm (4 in.) in 305 mm (12 in.) or greater.
(iii) A reduction in clearance above only the overhanging portion of the roof to not less than 457 mm (18 in.) is permitted where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300 if:
(A) The conductors do not pass above the roof overhang for a distance of more than 1.83 m (6.0 ft), 1.22 m (4.0 ft) horizontally, and
(B) The conductors are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or approved support.
(iv) The requirement for maintaining a vertical clearance of 914 mm (3.0 ft) from the edge of the roof does not apply to the final conductor span, where the conductors are attached to the side of a building.
(d) Location of outdoor lamps. Lamps for outdoor lighting shall be located below all energized conductors, transformers, or other electric equipment, unless such equipment is controlled by a disconnecting means that can be locked in the open position, or unless adequate clearances or other safeguards are provided for relamping operations.
(e) Services. (1) Disconnecting means. (i) Means shall be provided to disconnect all conductors in a building or other structure from the service-entrance conductors. The service disconnecting means shall plainly indicate whether it is in the open or closed position and shall be installed at a readily accessible location nearest the point of entrance of the service-entrance conductors.
(ii) Each service disconnecting means shall simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded conductors.
(iii) Each service disconnecting means shall be suitable for the prevailing conditions.
(2) Services over 600 volts, nominal. The following additional requirements apply to services over 600 volts, nominal.
(i) Service-entrance conductors installed as open wires shall be guarded to make them accessible only to qualified persons.
(ii) Signs warning of high voltage shall be posted where unqualified employees might come in contact with live parts.
(i) Conductors and equipment shall be protected from overcurrent in accordance with their ability to safely conduct current.
(ii) Except for motor running overload protection, overcurrent devices may not interrupt the continuity of the grounded conductor unless all conductors of the circuit are opened simultaneously.
(iii) A disconnecting means shall be provided on the supply side of all fuses in circuits over 150 volts to ground and cartridge fuses in circuits of any voltage where accessible to other than qualified persons so that each individual circuit containing fuses can be independently disconnected from the source of power. However, a current-limiting device without a disconnecting means is permitted on the supply side of the service disconnecting means. In addition, a single disconnecting means is permitted on the supply side of more than one set of fuses as permitted by the exception in §1910.305(j)(4)(vi) for group operation of motors, and a single disconnecting means is permitted for fixed electric space-heating equipment.
(iv) Overcurrent devices shall be readily accessible to each employee or authorized building management personnel. These overcurrent devices may not be located where they will be exposed to physical damage or in the vicinity of easily ignitable material.
(v) Fuses and circuit breakers shall be so located or shielded that employees will not be burned or otherwise injured by their operation. Handles or levers of circuit breakers, and similar parts that may move suddenly in such a way that persons in the vicinity are likely to be injured by being struck by them, shall be guarded or isolated.
(vi) Circuit breakers shall clearly indicate whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position.
(vii) Where circuit breaker handles on switchboards are operated vertically rather than horizontally or rotationally, the up position of the handle shall be the closed (on) position.
(viii) Circuit breakers used as switches in 120-volt and 277-volt, fluorescent lighting circuits shall be listed and marked “SWD.”
(ix) A circuit breaker with a straight voltage rating, such as 240 V or 480 V, may only be installed in a circuit in which the nominal voltage between any two conductors does not exceed the circuit breaker’s voltage rating. A two-pole circuit breaker may not be used for protecting a 3-phase, corner-grounded delta circuit unless the circuit breaker is marked 1?—3? to indicate such suitability. A circuit breaker with a slash rating, such as 120/240 V or 480Y/277 V, may only be installed in a circuit where the nominal voltage of any conductor to ground does not exceed the lower of the two values of the circuit breaker’s voltage rating and the nominal voltage between any two conductors does not exceed the higher value of the circuit breaker’s voltage rating.
(2) Feeders and branch circuits over 600 volts, nominal. The following requirements apply to feeders and branch circuits energized at more than 600 volts, nominal:
(i) Feeder and branch-circuit conductors shall have overcurrent protection in each ungrounded conductor located at the point where the conductor receives its supply or at a location in the circuit determined under engineering supervision;
(A) Circuit breakers used for overcurrent protection of three-phase circuits shall have a minimum of three overcurrent relays operated from three current transformers. On three-phase, three-wire circuits, an overcurrent relay in the residual circuit of the current transformers may replace one of the phase relays. An overcurrent relay, operated from a current transformer that links all phases of a three-phase, three-wire circuit, may replace the residual relay and one other phase-conductor current transformer. Where the neutral is not grounded on the load side of the circuit, the current transformer may link all three phase conductors and the grounded circuit conductor (neutral); and
(B) If fuses are used for overcurrent protection, a fuse shall be connected in series with each ungrounded conductor;
(ii) Each protective device shall be capable of detecting and interrupting all values of current that can occur at its location in excess of its trip setting or melting point;
(iii) The operating time of the protective device, the available shortcircuit current, and the conductor used shall be coordinated to prevent damaging or dangerous temperatures in conductors or conductor insulation under short-circuit conditions; and
(iv) The following additional requirements apply to feeders only:
(A) The continuous ampere rating of a fuse may not exceed three times the ampacity of the conductors. The long-time trip element setting of a breaker or the minimum trip setting of an electronically actuated fuse may not exceed six times the ampacity of the conductor. For fire pumps, conductors may be protected for short circuit only; and
(B) Conductors tapped to a feeder may be protected by the feeder overcurrent device where that overcurrent device also protects the tap conductor.
(g) Grounding. Paragraphs (g)(1) through (g)(9) of this section contain grounding requirements for systems, circuits, and equipment.
(1) Systems to be grounded. Systems that supply premises wiring shall be grounded as follows:
(i) All 3-wire dc systems shall have their neutral conductor grounded;
(ii) Two-wire dc systems operating at over 50 volts through 300 volts between conductors shall be grounded unless:
(A) They supply only industrial equipment in limited areas and are equipped with a ground detector;
(C) They are fire-alarm circuits having a maximum current of 0.030 amperes;
(iii) AC circuits of less than 50 volts shall be grounded if they are installed as overhead conductors outside of buildings or if they are supplied by transformers and the transformer primary supply system is ungrounded or exceeds 150 volts to ground;
(iv) AC systems of 50 volts to 1000 volts shall be grounded under any of the following conditions, unless exempted by paragraph (g)(1)(v) of this section:
(A) If the system can be so grounded that the maximum voltage to ground on the ungrounded conductors does not exceed 150 volts;
(B) If the system is nominally rated three-phase, four-wire wye connected in which the neutral is used as a circuit conductor;
(C) If the system is nominally rated three-phase, four-wire delta connected in which the midpoint of one phase is used as a circuit conductor; or
(D) If a service conductor is uninsulated;
(v) AC systems of 50 volts to 1000 volts are not required to be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(A) If the system is used exclusively to supply industrial electric furnaces for melting, refining, tempering, and the like;
(B) If the system is separately derived and is used exclusively for rectifiers supplying only adjustable speed industrial drives;
(C) If the system is separately derived and is supplied by a transformer that has a primary voltage rating less than 1000 volts, provided all of the following conditions are met:
(1) The system is used exclusively for control circuits;
(2) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the installation;
(3) Continuity of control power is required; and
(4) Ground detectors are installed on the control system;
(D) If the system is an isolated power system that supplies circuits in health care facilities; or
(E) If the system is a high-impedance grounded neutral system in which a grounding impedance, usually a resistor, limits the ground-fault current to a low value for 3-phase ac systems of 480 volts to 1000 volts provided all of the following conditions are met:
(1) The conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons will service the installation;
(2) Continuity of power is required;
(3) Ground detectors are installed on the system; and
(4) Line-to-neutral loads are not served.
(2) Conductor to be grounded. The conductor to be grounded for ac premises wiring systems required to be grounded by paragraph (g)(1) of this section shall be as follows:
(i) One conductor of a single-phase, two-wire system shall be grounded;
(ii) The neutral conductor of a single-phase, three-wire system shall be grounded;
(iii) The common conductor of a multiphase system having one wire common to all phases shall be grounded;
(iv) One phase conductor of a multiphase system where one phase is grounded shall be grounded; and
(v) The neutral conductor of a multiphase system in which one phase is used as a neutral conductor shall be grounded.
(3) Portable and vehicle-mounted generators. (i) The frame of a portable generator need not be grounded and may serve as the grounding electrode for a system supplied by the generator under the following conditions:
(A) The generator supplies only equipment mounted on the generator or cord- and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the generator, or both; and
(B) The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles are bonded to the generator frame.
(ii) The frame of a vehicle need not be grounded and may serve as the grounding electrode for a system supplied by a generator located on the vehicle under the following conditions:
(A) The frame of the generator is bonded to the vehicle frame;
(B) The generator supplies only equipment located on the vehicle and cord- and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the vehicle;
(C) The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles are bonded to the generator frame; and
(D) The system complies with all other provisions of paragraph (g) of this section.
(iii) A system conductor that is required to be grounded by the provisions of paragraph (g)(2) of this section shall be bonded to the generator frame where the generator is a component of a separately derived system.
(4) Grounding connections. (i) For a grounded system, a grounding electrode conductor shall be used to connect both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounded circuit conductor to the grounding electrode. Both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounding electrode conductor shall be connected to the grounded circuit conductor on the supply side of the service disconnecting means or on the supply side of the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices if the system is separately derived.
(ii) For an ungrounded service-supplied system, the equipment grounding conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode conductor at the service equipment. For an ungrounded separately derived system, the equipment grounding conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode conductor at, or ahead of, the system disconnecting means or overcurrent devices.
(iii) On extensions of existing branch circuits that do not have an equipment grounding conductor, grounding-type receptacles may be grounded to a grounded cold water pipe near the equipment if the extension was installed before August 13, 2007. When any element of this branch circuit is replaced, the entire branch circuit shall use an equipment grounding conductor that complies with all other provisions of paragraph (g) of this section.
(5) Grounding path. The path to ground from circuits, equipment, and enclosures shall be permanent, continuous, and effective.
(A) Metal enclosures such as sleeves that are used to protect cable assemblies from physical damage need not be grounded; and
(B) Metal enclosures for conductors added to existing installations of open wire, knob-and-tube wiring, and nonmetallic-sheathed cable need not be grounded if all of the following conditions are met:
(1) Runs are less than 7.62 meters (25.0 ft);
(2) Enclosures are free from probable contact with ground, grounded metal, metal laths, or other conductive materials; and
(3) Enclosures are guarded against employee contact.
(ii) Metal enclosures for service equipment shall be grounded.
(iii) Frames of electric ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units, clothes dryers, and metal outlet or junction boxes that are part of the circuit for these appliances shall be grounded.
(iv) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment that may become energized shall be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(A) If within 2.44 m (8 ft) vertically or 1.52 m (5 ft) horizontally of ground or grounded metal objects and subject to employee contact;
(B) If located in a wet or damp location and not isolated;
(C) If in electrical contact with metal;
(D) If in a hazardous (classified) location;
(E) If supplied by a metal-clad, metal-sheathed, or grounded metal raceway wiring method; or
(F) If equipment operates with any terminal at over 150 volts to ground.
(v) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (g)(6)(iv) of this section, exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of the following types of fixed equipment need not be grounded:
(A) Enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used for other than service equipment and accessible to qualified persons only;
(B) Electrically heated appliances that are permanently and effectively insulated from ground;
(C) Distribution apparatus, such as transformer and capacitor cases, mounted on wooden poles, at a height exceeding 2.44 m (8.0 ft) above ground or grade level; and
(D) Listed equipment protected by a system of double insulation, or its equivalent, and distinctively marked as such.
(vi) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of cord- and plug-connected equipment that may become energized shall be grounded under any of the following conditions:
(A) If in hazardous (classified) locations (see §1910.307);
(B) If operated at over 150 volts to ground, except for guarded motors and metal frames of electrically heated appliances if the appliance frames are permanently and effectively insulated from ground;
(C) If the equipment is of the following types:
(1) Refrigerators, freezers, and air conditioners;
(2) Clothes-washing, clothes-drying, and dishwashing machines, sump pumps, and electric aquarium equipment;
(3) Hand-held motor-operated tools, stationary and fixed motor-operated tools, and light industrial motor-operated tools;
(4) Motor-operated appliances of the following types: hedge clippers, lawn mowers, snow blowers, and wet scrubbers;
(5) Cord- and plug-connected appliances used in damp or wet locations, or by employees standing on the ground or on metal floors or working inside of metal tanks or boilers;
(6) Portable and mobile X-ray and associated equipment;
(7) Tools likely to be used in wet and conductive locations; and
(8) Portable hand lamps.
(vii) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (g)(6)(vi) of this section, the following equipment need not be grounded:
(A) Tools likely to be used in wet and conductive locations if supplied through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of not over 50 volts; and
(B) Listed or labeled portable tools and appliances if protected by an approved system of double insulation, or its equivalent, and distinctively marked.
(7) Nonelectrical equipment. The metal parts of the following nonelectrical equipment shall be grounded: frames and tracks of electrically operated cranes and hoists; frames of nonelectrically driven elevator cars to which electric conductors are attached; hand-operated metal shifting ropes or cables of electric elevators; and metal partitions, grill work, and similar metal enclosures around equipment of over 750 volts between conductors.
(8) Methods of grounding fixed equipment. (i) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment, if required to be grounded by this subpart, shall be grounded by an equipment grounding conductor that is contained within the same raceway, cable, or cord, or runs with or encloses the circuit conductors. For dc circuits only, the equipment grounding conductor may be run separately from the circuit conductors.
(ii) Electric equipment is considered to be effectively grounded if it is secured to, and in electrical contact with, a metal rack or structure that is provided for its support and the metal rack or structure is grounded by the method specified for the noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed equipment in paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section. Metal car frames supported by metal hoisting cables attached to or running over metal sheaves or drums of grounded elevator machines are also considered to be effectively grounded.
(iii) For installations made before April 16, 1981, electric equipment is also considered to be effectively grounded if it is secured to, and in metallic contact with, the grounded structural metal frame of a building. When any element of this branch circuit is replaced, the entire branch circuit shall use an equipment grounding conductor that complies with all other provisions of paragraph (g) of this section.
(9) Grounding of systems and circuits of 1000 volts and over (high voltage). If high voltage systems are grounded, they shall comply with all applicable provisions of paragraphs (g)(1) through (g)(8) of this section as supplemented and modified by the following requirements:
(i) Systems supplying portable or mobile high voltage equipment, other than substations installed on a temporary basis, shall comply with the following:
(A) The system shall have its neutral grounded through an impedance. If a delta-connected high voltage system is used to supply the equipment, a system neutral shall be derived.
(B) Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable and mobile equipment shall be connected by an equipment grounding conductor to the point at which the system neutral impedance is grounded.
(C) Ground-fault detection and relaying shall be provided to automatically deenergize any high voltage system component that has developed a ground fault. The continuity of the equipment grounding conductor shall be continuously monitored so as to deenergize automatically the high voltage feeder to the portable equipment upon loss of continuity of the equipment grounding conductor.
(D) The grounding electrode to which the portable equipment system neutral impedance is connected shall be isolated from and separated in the ground by at least 6.1 m (20.0 ft) from any other system or equipment grounding electrode, and there shall be no direct connection between the grounding electrodes, such as buried pipe, fence, and so forth.
(ii) All noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable equipment and fixed equipment, including their associated fences, housings, enclosures, and supporting structures, shall be grounded. However, equipment that is guarded by location and isolated from ground need not be grounded. Additionally, pole-mounted distribution apparatus at a height exceeding 2.44 m (8.0 ft) above ground or grade level need not be grounded.
[46 FR 4056, Jan. 16, 1981; 46 FR 40185, Aug. 7, 1981, as amended at 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 72 FR 7195, Feb. 14, 2007]