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Chemical accidents can occur at businesses of any size. Many businesses handle propane, ammonia, chlorine, and other chemicals that could pose a risk to the surrounding community if an accident were to occur. When Congress passed the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Section 112(r) required EPA to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that use substances that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases.
Subsequently, EPA established chemical accident prevention requirements at 40 CFR 68 for businesses of all sizes that use certain listed regulated flammable and/or toxic substances. The regulation is known as the Risk Management Plan (RMP) rule. Owners and operators of a facility (considered a stationary source) that manufactures, uses, stores, or otherwise handles more than a threshold quantity of a listed regulated substance in a process must implement a set of hazard assessment, accident prevention, and emergency response elements and submit a single written RMP to EPA or the state implementing agency for all covered processes at the facility. The submitted information helps local fire, police, and emergency response personnel (who must prepare for and respond to chemical accidents) and is useful to citizens in understanding the chemical hazards in communities.
An owner or operator of a stationary source that has more than a threshold quantity of a regulated substance in a process, as determined under §68.115, must comply with the requirements of Part 68. The regulations do not apply to transportation, including storage incident to transportation. However, transportation containers used for storage not incident to transportation and transportation containers connected to equipment at a stationary source are considered part of the stationary source and are potentially covered by the regulations.
40 CFR 68 — Chemical accident prevention provisions
Title 19, California Code of Regulations, Division 2, Chapter 4.5 — California Accidental Release Prevention (CalARP) Program Detailed Analysis
Accidental release: means an unanticipated emission of a regulated substance or other extremely hazardous substance into the ambient air from a stationary source.
Administrative controls: mean written procedural mechanisms used for hazard control.
Article: means a manufactured item, as defined under 29 CFR 1910.1200(b), that is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture, that has end use functions dependent in whole or in part upon the shape or design during end use, and that does not release or otherwise result in exposure to a regulated substance under normal conditions of processing and use.
Catastrophic release: means a major uncontrolled emission, fire, or explosion, involving one or more regulated substances that presents imminent and substantial endangerment to public health and the environment.
CBI: means confidential business information.
Covered process: means a process that has a regulated substance present in more than a threshold quantity as determined under §68.115.
Environmental receptor: means natural areas such as national or state parks, forests, or monuments; officially designated wildlife sanctuaries, preserves, refuges, or areas; and Federal wilderness areas, that could be exposed at any time to toxic concentrations, radiant heat, or overpressure greater than or equal to the endpoints provided in §68.22(a), as a result of an accidental release and that can be identified on local U. S. Geological Survey maps.
Hot work: means work involving electric or gas welding, cutting, brazing, or similar flame or spark-producing operations.
Implementing agency: means the state or local agency that obtains delegation for an accidental release prevention program under Subpart E of 40 CFR 63. The implementing agency may, but is not required to, be the state or local air permitting agency. If no state or local agency is granted delegation, EPA will be the implementing agency for that state.
Injury: means any effect on a human that results either from direct exposure to toxic concentrations; radiant heat; or overpressures from accidental releases or from the direct consequences of a vapor cloud explosion (such as flying glass, debris, and other projectiles) from an accidental release and that requires medical treatment or hospitalization.
LEPC: means local emergency planning committee as established under 42 U.S.C. 11001(r).
Major change: means introduction of a new process, process equipment, or regulated substance, an alteration of process chemistry that results in any change to safe operating limits, or other alteration that introduces a new hazard.
Mechanical integrity: means the process of ensuring that process equipment is fabricated from the proper materials of construction and is properly installed, maintained, and replaced to prevent failures and accidental releases.
Medical treatment: means treatment, other than first aid, administered by a physician or registered professional personnel under standing orders from a physician.
Mitigation or mitigation system: means specific activities, technologies, or equipment designed or deployed to capture or control substances upon loss of containment to minimize exposure of the public or the environment. Passive mitigation means equipment, devices, or technologies that function without human, mechanical, or other energy input. Active mitigation means equipment, devices, or technologies that need human, mechanical, or other energy input to function.
Offsite: means areas beyond the property boundary of the stationary source, and areas within the property boundary to which the public has routine and unrestricted access during or outside business hours.
Owner or operator: means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises a stationary source.
Process: means any activity involving a regulated substance including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling, or on-site movement of such substances, or combination of these activities. For the purposes of this definition, any group of vessels that are interconnected, or separate vessels that are located such that a regulated substance could be involved in a potential release, shall be considered a single process.
Public receptor: means offsite residences, institutions (e.g., schools, hospitals), industrial, commercial, and office buildings, parks, or recreational areas inhabited or occupied by the public at any time without restriction by the stationary source where members of the public could be exposed to toxic concentrations, radiant heat, or overpressure, as a result of an accidental release.
Regulated substance: is any substance listed pursuant to section 112(r)(3) of the Clean Air Act as amended. See §68.130.
Replacement in kind: means a replacement that satisfies the design specifications.
Retail facility: means a stationary source at which more than one-half of the income is obtained from direct sales to end users or at which more than one-half of the fuel sold, by volume, is sold through a cylinder exchange program.
Stationary source: means any buildings, structures, equipment, installations, or substance emitting stationary activities which belong to the same industrial group, which are located on one or more contiguous properties, which are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control), and from which an accidental release may occur. The term stationary source does not apply to transportation, including storage incident to transportation, of any regulated substance or any other extremely hazardous substance under the provisions of this part. A stationary source includes transportation containers used for storage not incident to transportation and transportation containers connected to equipment at a stationary source for loading or unloading. Transportation includes, but is not limited to, transportation subject to oversight or regulation under 49 CFR 192, 193, or 195, or a state natural gas or hazardous liquid program for which the state has in effect a certification to DOT under 49 U.S.C. 60105. A stationary source does not include naturally occurring hydrocarbon reservoirs. Properties shall not be considered contiguous solely because of a railroad or pipeline right-of-way.
Threshold quantity: means the quantity specified for regulated substances pursuant to section 112(r)(5) of the Clean Air Act as amended, listed in §68.130 and determined to be present at a stationary source as specified in §68.115.
Typical meteorological conditions: means the temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and atmospheric stability class, prevailing at the site based on data gathered at or near the site or from a local meteorological station.
Vessel: means any reactor, tank, drum, barrel, cylinder, vat, kettle, boiler, pipe, hose, or other container.
Worst-case release: means the release of the largest quantity of a regulated substance from a vessel or process line failure that results in the greatest distance to an endpoint defined in §68.22(a).
Determine the following:
If the facility answered yes to all of the above questions, the facility is subject to Part 68 and must:
DIFFERENCES FROM THE FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS