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(a) Electric signs and outline lighting. (1) Disconnecting means. (i) Each sign and outline lighting system, or feeder circuit or branch circuit supplying a sign or outline lighting system, shall be controlled by an externally operable switch or circuit breaker that will open all ungrounded conductors. However, a disconnecting means is not required for an exit directional sign located within a building or for cord-connected signs with an attachment plug.
(ii) Signs and outline lighting systems located within fountains shall have the disconnect located at least 1.52 m (5.0 ft) from the inside walls of the fountain.
(2) Location. (i) The disconnecting means shall be within sight of the sign or outline lighting system that it controls. Where the disconnecting means is out of the line of sight from any section that may be energized, the disconnecting means shall be capable of being locked in the open position.
(ii) Signs or outline lighting systems operated by electronic or electromechanical controllers located external to the sign or outline lighting system may have a disconnecting means located within sight of the controller or in the same enclosure with the controller. The disconnecting means shall disconnect the sign or outline lighting system and the controller from all ungrounded supply conductors. It shall be designed so no pole can be operated independently and shall be capable of being locked in the open position.
(iii) Doors or covers giving access to uninsulated parts of indoor signs or outline lighting exceeding 600 volts and accessible to other than qualified persons shall either be provided with interlock switches to disconnect the primary circuit or shall be so fastened that the use of other than ordinary tools will be necessary to open them.
(b) Cranes and hoists. This paragraph applies to the installation of electric equipment and wiring used in connection with cranes, monorail hoists, hoists, and all runways.
(1) Disconnecting means for runway conductors. A disconnecting means shall be provided between the runway contact conductors and the power supply. Such disconnecting means shall consist of a motor-circuit switch, circuit breaker, or molded case switch. The disconnecting means shall open all ungrounded conductors simultaneously and shall be:
(i) Readily accessible and operable from the ground or floor level;
(ii) Arranged to be locked in the open position; and
(iii) Placed within view of the runway contact conductors.
(2) Disconnecting means for cranes and monorail hoists. (i) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section, a motor-circuit switch, molded case switch, or circuit breaker shall be provided in the leads from the runway contact conductors or other power supply on all cranes and monorail hoists.
(ii) The disconnecting means shall be capable of being locked in the open position.
(iii) Means shall be provided at the operating station to open the power circuit to all motors of the crane or monorail hoist where the disconnecting means is not readily accessible from the crane or monorail hoist operating station.
(iv) The disconnecting means may be omitted where a monorail hoist or hand-propelled crane bridge installation meets all of the following conditions:
(A) The unit is controlled from the ground or floor level;
(B) The unit is within view of the power supply disconnecting means; and
(C) No fixed work platform has been provided for servicing the unit.
(3) Limit switch. A limit switch or other device shall be provided to prevent the load block from passing the safe upper limit of travel of any hoisting mechanism.
(4) Clearance. The dimension of the working space in the direction of access to live parts that may require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while alive shall be a minimum of 762 mm (2.5 ft). Where controls are enclosed in cabinets, the doors shall either open at least 90 degrees or be removable.
(c) Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, wheelchair lifts, and stairway chair lifts. The following requirements apply to elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, wheelchair lifts, and stairway chair lifts.
(1) Disconnecting means. Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, wheelchair lifts, and stairway chair lifts shall have a single means for disconnecting all ungrounded main power supply conductors for each unit.
(2) Control panels. Control panels not located in the same space as the drive machine shall be located in cabinets with doors or panels capable of being locked closed.
(3) Type. The disconnecting means shall be an enclosed externally operable fused motor circuit switch or circuit breaker capable of being locked in the open position. The disconnecting means shall be a listed device.
(4) Operation. No provision may be made to open or close this disconnecting means from any other part of the premises. If sprinklers are installed in hoistways, machine rooms, or machinery spaces, the disconnecting means may automatically open the power supply to the affected elevators prior to the application of water. No provision may be made to close this disconnecting means automatically (that is, power may only be restored by manual means).
(5) Location. The disconnecting means shall be located where it is readily accessible to qualified persons.
(i) On elevators without generator field control, the disconnecting means shall be located within sight of the motor controller. Driving machines or motion and operation controllers not within sight of the disconnecting means shall be provided with a manually operated switch installed in the control circuit adjacent to the equipment in order to prevent starting. Where the driving machine is located in a remote machinery space, a single disconnecting means for disconnecting all ungrounded main power supply conductors shall be provided and be capable of being locked in the open position.
(ii) On elevators with generator field control, the disconnecting means shall be located within sight of the motor controller for the driving motor of the motor-generator set. Driving machines, motor-generator sets, or motion and operation controllers not within sight of the disconnecting means shall be provided with a manually operated switch installed in the control circuit to prevent starting. The manually operated switch shall be installed adjacent to this equipment. Where the driving machine or the motor-generator set is located in a remote machinery space, a single means for disconnecting all ungrounded main power supply conductors shall be provided and be capable of being locked in the open position.
(iii) On escalators and moving walks, the disconnecting means shall be installed in the space where the controller is located.
(iv) On wheelchair lifts and stairway chair lifts, the disconnecting means shall be located within sight of the motor controller.
(6) Identification and signs. (i) Where there is more than one driving machine in a machine room, the disconnecting means shall be numbered to correspond to the identifying number of the driving machine that they control.
(ii) The disconnecting means shall be provided with a sign to identify the location of the supply-side overcurrent protective device.
(7) Single-car and multicar installations. On single-car and multicar installations, equipment receiving electrical power from more than one source shall be provided with a disconnecting means for each source of electrical power. The disconnecting means shall be within sight of the equipment served.
(8) Warning sign for multiple disconnecting means. A warning sign shall be mounted on or next to the disconnecting means where multiple disconnecting means are used and parts of the controllers remain energized from a source other than the one disconnected. The sign shall be clearly legible and shall read “WARNING—PARTS OF THE CONTROLLER ARE NOT DEENERGIZED BY THIS SWITCH.”
(9) Interconnection between multicar controllers. A warning sign worded as required in paragraph (c)(8) of this section shall be mounted on or next to the disconnecting means where interconnections between controllers are necessary for the operation of the system on multicar installations that remain energized from a source other than the one disconnected.
(10) Motor controllers. Motor controllers may be located outside the spaces otherwise required by paragraph (c) of this section, provided they are in enclosures with doors or removable panels capable of being locked closed and the disconnecting means is located adjacent to or is an integral part of the motor controller. Motor controller enclosures for escalators or moving walks may be located in the balustrade on the side located away from the moving steps or moving treadway. If the disconnecting means is an integral part of the motor controller, it shall be operable without opening the enclosure.
(d) Electric welders—disconnecting means. (1) Arc welders. A disconnecting means shall be provided in the supply circuit for each arc welder that is not equipped with a disconnect mounted as an integral part of the welder. The disconnecting means shall be a switch or circuit breaker, and its rating may not be less than that necessary to accommodate overcurrent protection.
(2) Resistance welders. A switch or circuit breaker shall be provided by which each resistance welder and its control equipment can be disconnected from the supply circuit. The ampere rating of this disconnecting means may not be less than the supply conductor ampacity. The supply circuit switch may be used as the welder disconnecting means where the circuit supplies only one welder.
(e) Information technology equipment. (1) Disconnecting means. A means shall be provided to disconnect power to all electronic equipment in an information technology equipment room. There shall also be a similar means to disconnect the power to all dedicated heating, ventilating, and airconditioning (HVAC) systems serving the room and to cause all required fire/ smoke dampers to close.
(2) Grouping. The control for these disconnecting means shall be grouped and identified and shall be readily accessible at the principal exit doors. A single means to control both the electronic equipment and HVAC system is permitted.
(f) X-Ray equipment. This paragraph applies to X-ray equipment.
(1) Disconnecting means. (i) A disconnecting means shall be provided in the supply circuit. The disconnecting means shall be operable from a location readily accessible from the X-ray control. For equipment connected to a 120-volt branch circuit of 30 amperes or less, a grounding-type attachment plug cap and receptacle of proper rating may serve as a disconnecting means.
(ii) If more than one piece of equipment is operated from the same high-voltage circuit, each piece or each group of equipment as a unit shall be provided with a high-voltage switch or equivalent disconnecting means. The disconnecting means shall be constructed, enclosed, or located so as to avoid contact by employees with its live parts.
(2) Control. The following requirements apply to industrial and commercial laboratory equipment.
(i) Radiographic and fluoroscopic-type equipment shall be effectively enclosed or shall have interlocks that deenergize the equipment automatically to prevent ready access to live current-carrying parts.
(ii) Diffraction- and irradiation-type equipment shall have a pilot light, readable meter deflection, or equivalent means to indicate when the equipment is energized, unless the equipment or installation is effectively enclosed or is provided with interlocks to prevent access to live current-carrying parts during operation.
(g) Induction and dielectric heating equipment. This paragraph applies to induction and dielectric heating equipment and accessories for industrial and scientific applications, but not for medical or dental applications or for appliances.
(1) Guarding and grounding. (i) The converting apparatus (including the dc line) and high-frequency electric circuits (excluding the output circuits and remote-control circuits) shall be completely contained within enclosures of noncombustible material.
(ii) All panel controls shall be of dead-front construction.
(iii) Doors or detachable panels shall be employed for internal access. Where doors are used giving access to voltages from 500 to 1000 volts ac or dc, either door locks shall be provided or interlocks shall be installed. Where doors are used giving access to voltages of over 1000 volts ac or dc, either mechanical lockouts with a disconnecting means to prevent access until circuit parts within the cubicle are deenergized, or both door interlocking and mechanical door locks, shall be provided. Detachable panels not normally used for access to such parts shall be fastened in a manner that will make them difficult to remove (for example, by requiring the use of tools).
(iv) Warning labels or signs that read “DANGER—HIGH VOLTAGE—KEEP OUT” shall be attached to the equipment and shall be plainly visible where persons might contact energized parts when doors are opened or closed or when panels are removed from compartments containing over 250 volts ac or dc.
(v) Induction and dielectric heating equipment shall be protected as follows:
(A) Protective cages or adequate shielding shall be used to guard work applicators other than induction heating coils.
(B) Induction heating coils shall be protected by insulation or refractory materials or both.
(C) Interlock switches shall be used on all hinged access doors, sliding panels, or other such means of access to the applicator, unless the applicator is an induction heating coil at dc ground potential or operating at less than 150 volts ac.
(D) Interlock switches shall be connected in such a manner as to remove all power from the applicator when any one of the access doors or panels is open.
(vi) A readily accessible disconnecting means shall be provided by which each heating equipment can be isolated from its supply circuit. The ampere rating of this disconnecting means may not be less than the nameplate current rating of the equipment. The supply circuit disconnecting means is permitted as a heating equipment disconnecting means where the circuit supplies only one piece of equipment.
(ii) Switches operated by foot pressure shall be provided with a shield over the contact button to avoid accidental closing of the switch.
(h) Electrolytic cells. This paragraph applies to the installation of the electrical components and accessory equipment of electrolytic cells, electrolytic cell lines, and process power supply for the production of aluminum, cadmium, chlorine, copper, fluorine, hydrogen peroxide, magnesium, sodium, sodium chlorate, and zinc. Cells used as a source of electric energy and for electroplating processes and cells used for production of hydrogen are not covered by this paragraph.
(1) Application. Installations covered by paragraph (h) of this section shall comply with all applicable provisions of this subpart, except as follows:
(i) Overcurrent protection of electrolytic cell dc process power circuits need not comply with the requirements of §1910.304(f);
(ii) Equipment located or used within the cell line working zone or associated with the cell line dc power circuits need not comply with the provisions of §1910.304(g); and
(iii) Electrolytic cells, cell line conductors, cell line attachments, and the wiring of auxiliary equipment and devices within the cell line working zone need not comply with the provisions of §1910.303 or §1910.304(b) and (c).
(2) Disconnecting means. If more than one dc cell line process power supply serves the same cell line, a disconnecting means shall be provided on the cell line circuit side of each power supply to disconnect it from the cell line circuit. Removable links or removable conductors may be used as the disconnecting means.
(3) Portable electric equipment. (i) The frames and enclosures of portable electric equipment used within the cell line working zone may not be grounded, unless the cell line circuit voltage does not exceed 200 volts DC or the frames are guarded.
(ii) Ungrounded portable electric equipment shall be distinctively marked and shall employ plugs and receptacles of a configuration that prevents connection of this equipment to grounding receptacles and that prevents inadvertent interchange of ungrounded and grounded portable electric equipment.
(4) Power supply circuits and receptacles for portable electric equipment. (i) Circuits supplying power to ungrounded receptacles for handheld, cord- and plug-connected equipment shall meet the following requirements:
(A) The circuits shall be electrically isolated from any distribution system supplying areas other than the cell line working zone and shall be ungrounded;
(B) The circuits shall be supplied through isolating transformers with primaries operating at not more than 600 volts between conductors and protected with proper overcurrent protection;
(C) The secondary voltage of the isolating transformers may not exceed 300 volts between conductors; and
(D) All circuits supplied from the secondaries shall be ungrounded and shall have an approved overcurrent device of proper rating in each conductor.
(ii) Receptacles and their mating plugs for ungrounded equipment may not have provision for a grounding conductor and shall be of a configuration that prevents their use for equipment required to be grounded.
(iii) Receptacles on circuits supplied by an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary:
(A) Shall have a distinctive configuration;
(B) Shall be distinctively marked; and
(C) May not be used in any other location in the facility.
(A) AC systems supplying fixed and portable electric equipment within the cell line working zone; and
(B) Exposed conductive surfaces, such as electric equipment housings, cabinets, boxes, motors, raceways and the like that are within the cell line working zone.
(ii) Auxiliary electric equipment, such as motors, transducers, sensors, control devices, and alarms, mounted on an electrolytic cell or other energized surface shall be connected to the premises wiring systems by any of the following means:
(A) Multiconductor hard usage or extra hard usage flexible cord;
(B) Wire or cable in suitable nonmetallic raceways or cable trays; or
(C) Wire or cable in suitable metal raceways or metal cable trays installed with insulating breaks such that they will not cause a potentially hazardous electrical condition.
(iii) Fixed electric equipment may be bonded to the energized conductive surfaces of the cell line, its attachments, or auxiliaries. If fixed electric equipment is mounted on an energized conductive surface, it shall be bonded to that surface.
(6) Auxiliary nonelectrical connections. Auxiliary nonelectrical connections such as air hoses, water hoses, and the like, to an electrolytic cell, its attachments, or auxiliary equipment may not have continuous conductive reinforcing wire, armor, braids, or the like. Hoses shall be of a nonconductive material.
(7) Cranes and hoists. (i) The conductive surfaces of cranes and hoists that enter the cell line working zone need not be grounded. The portion of an overhead crane or hoist that contacts an energized electrolytic cell or energized attachments shall be insulated from ground.
(ii) Remote crane or hoist controls that may introduce hazardous electrical conditions into the cell line working zone shall employ one or more of the following systems:
(A) Isolated and ungrounded control circuit;
(B) Nonconductive rope operator;
(C) Pendant pushbutton with nonconductive supporting means and with nonconductive surfaces or ungrounded exposed conductive surfaces; or
(i) Electrically driven or controlled irrigation machines. (1) Lightning protection. If an irrigation machine has a stationary point, a grounding electrode system shall be connected to the machine at the stationary point for lightning protection.
(2) Disconnecting means. (i) The main disconnecting means for a center pivot irrigation machine shall be located at the point of connection of electrical power to the machine or shall be visible and not more than 15.2 m (50 ft) from the machine.
(ii) The disconnecting means shall be readily accessible and capable of being locked in the open position.
(iii) A disconnecting means shall be provided for each motor and controller.
(j) Swimming pools, fountains, and similar installations. This paragraph applies to electric wiring for and equipment in or adjacent to all swimming, wading, therapeutic, and decorative pools and fountains; hydromassage bathtubs, whether permanently installed or storable; and metallic auxiliary equipment, such as pumps, filters, and similar equipment. Therapeutic pools in health care facilities are exempt from these provisions.
(1) Receptacles. (i) A single receptacle of the locking and grounding type that provides power for a permanently installed swimming pool recirculating pump motor may be located not less than 1.52 m (5 ft) from the inside walls of a pool. All other receptacles on the property shall be located at least 3.05 m (10 ft) from the inside walls of a pool.
(ii) Receptacles that are located within 4.57 m (15 ft), or 6.08 m (20 ft) if the installation was built after August 13, 2007, of the inside walls of the pool shall be protected by ground-fault circuit interrupters.
(iii) Where a pool is installed permanently at a dwelling unit, at least one 125-volt, 15- or 20-ampere receptacle on a general-purpose branch circuit shall be located a minimum of 3.05 m (10 ft) and not more than 6.08 m (20 ft) from the inside wall of the pool. This receptacle shall be located not more than 1.98 m (6.5 ft) above the floor, platform, or grade level serving the pool.
Note to paragraph (j)(1) of this section: In determining these dimensions, the distance to be measured is the shortest path the supply cord of an appliance connected to the receptacle would follow without piercing a floor, wall, or ceiling of a building or other effective permanent barrier.
(2) Lighting fixtures, lighting outlets, and ceiling suspended (paddle) fans. (i) In outdoor pool areas, lighting fixtures, lighting outlets, and ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans may not be installed over the pool or over the area extending 1.52 m (5 ft) horizontally from the inside walls of a pool unless no part of the lighting fixture of a ceiling-suspended (paddle) fan is less than 3.66 m (12 ft) above the maximum water level. However, a lighting fixture or lighting outlet that was installed before April 16, 1981, may be located less than 1.52 m (5 ft) measured horizontally from the inside walls of a pool if it is at least 1.52 m (5 ft) above the surface of the maximum water level and is rigidly attached to the existing structure. It shall also be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter installed in the branch circuit supplying the fixture.
(ii) Lighting fixtures and lighting outlets installed in the area extending between 1.52 m (5 ft) and 3.05 m (10 ft) horizontally from the inside walls of a pool shall be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter unless installed 1.52 m (5 ft) above the maximum water level and rigidly attached to the structure adjacent to or enclosing the pool.
(3) Cord- and plug-connected equipment. Flexible cords used with the following equipment may not exceed 0.9 m (3 ft) in length and shall have a copper equipment grounding conductor with a grounding-type attachment plug:
(i) Cord- and plug-connected lighting fixtures installed within 4.88 m (16 ft) of the water surface of permanently installed pools; and
(ii) Other cord- and plug-connected, fixed or stationary equipment used with permanently installed pools.
(4) Underwater equipment. (i) A ground-fault circuit interrupter shall be installed in the branch circuit supplying underwater fixtures operating at more than 15 volts. Equipment installed underwater shall be identified for the purpose.
(ii) No underwater lighting fixtures may be installed for operation at over 150 volts between conductors.
(iii) A lighting fixture facing upward shall have the lens adequately guarded to prevent contact by any person.
(5) Fountains. All electric equipment, including power supply cords, operating at more than 15 volts and used with fountains shall be protected by ground-fault circuit interrupters.
(k) Carnivals, circuses, fairs, and similar events. This paragraph covers the installation of portable wiring and equipment, including wiring in or on all structures, for carnivals, circuses, exhibitions, fairs, traveling attractions, and similar events.
(1) Protection of electric equipment. Electric equipment and wiring methods in or on rides, concessions, or other units shall be provided with mechanical protection where such equipment or wiring methods are subject to physical damage.
(A) Service equipment may not be installed in a location that is accessible to unqualified persons, unless the equipment is lockable; and
(B) Service equipment shall be mounted on solid backing and installed so as to be protected from the weather, unless the equipment is of weatherproof construction.
(ii) Amusement rides and amusement attractions shall be maintained not less than 4.57 m (15 ft) in any direction from overhead conductors operating at 600 volts or less, except for the conductors supplying the amusement ride or attraction. Amusement rides or attractions may not be located under or within 4.57 m (15 ft) horizontally of conductors operating in excess of 600 volts.
(iii) Flexible cords and cables shall be listed for extra-hard usage. When used outdoors, flexible cords and cables shall also be listed for wet locations and shall be sunlight resistant.
(iv) Single conductor cable shall be size No. 2 or larger.
(v) Open conductors are prohibited except as part of a listed assembly or festoon lighting installed in accordance with §1910.304(c).
(vi) Flexible cords and cables shall be continuous without splice or tap between boxes or fittings. Cord connectors may not be laid on the ground unless listed for wet locations. Connectors and cable connections may not be placed in audience traffic paths or within areas accessible to the public unless guarded.
(vii) Wiring for an amusement ride, attraction, tent, or similar structure may not be supported by another ride or structure unless specifically identified for the purpose.
(viii) Flexible cords and cables run on the ground, where accessible to the public, shall be covered with approved nonconductive mats. Cables and mats shall be arranged so as not to present a tripping hazard.
(ix) A box or fitting shall be installed at each connection point, outlet, switch point, or junction point.
(3) Inside tents and concessions. Electrical wiring for temporary lighting, where installed inside of tents and concessions, shall be securely installed, and, where subject to physical damage, shall be provided with mechanical protection. All temporary lamps for general illumination shall be protected from accidental breakage by a suitable fixture or lampholder with a guard.
(4) Portable distribution and termination boxes. Employers may only use portable distribution and termination boxes that meet the following requirements:
(i) Boxes shall be designed so that no live parts are exposed to accidental contact. Where installed outdoors, the box shall be of weatherproof construction and mounted so that the bottom of the enclosure is not less than 152 mm (6 in.) above the ground;
(ii) Busbars shall have an ampere rating not less than the overcurrent device supplying the feeder supplying the box. Busbar connectors shall be provided where conductors terminate directly on busbars;
(iii) Receptacles shall have overcurrent protection installed within the box. The overcurrent protection may not exceed the ampere rating of the receptacle, except as permitted in §1910.305(j)(4) for motor loads;
(iv) Where single-pole connectors are used, they shall comply with the following:
(A) Where ac single-pole portable cable connectors are used, they shall be listed and of the locking type. Where paralleled sets of current-carrying single-pole separable connectors are provided as input devices, they shall be prominently labeled with a warning indicating the presence of internal parallel connections. The use of single-pole separable connectors shall comply with at least one of the following conditions:
(1) Connection and disconnection of connectors are only possible where the supply connectors are interlocked to the source and it is not possible to connect or disconnect connectors when the supply is energized; or
(2) Line connectors are of the listed sequential-interlocking type so that load connectors are connected in the following sequence:
(i) Equipment grounding conductor connection;
(ii) Grounded circuit-conductor connection, if provided; and
(iii) Ungrounded conductor connection; and so that disconnection is in the reverse order; or
(3) A caution notice is provided adjacent to the line connectors indicating that plug connection must be in the following sequence:
(i) Equipment grounding conductor connection;
(ii) Grounded circuit-conductor connection, if provided; and
(iii) Ungrounded conductor connection; and indicating that disconnection is in the reverse order; and
(B) Single-pole separable connectors used in portable professional motion picture and television equipment may be interchangeable for ac or dc use or for different current ratings on the same premises only if they are listed for ac/dc use and marked to identify the system to which they are connected;
(v) Overcurrent protection of equipment and conductors shall be provided; and
(vi) The following equipment connected to the same source shall be bonded:
(A) Metal raceways and metal sheathed cable;
(B) Metal enclosures of electrical equipment; and
(C) Metal frames and metal parts of rides, concessions, trailers, trucks, or other equipment that contain or support electrical equipment.
(ii) The disconnecting means shall be readily accessible to the operator, including when the ride is in operation.
(iii) Where accessible to unqualified persons, the enclosure for the switch or circuit breaker shall be of the lockable type.
(iv) A shunt trip device that opens the fused disconnect or circuit breaker when a switch located in the ride operator’s console is closed is a permissible method of opening the circuit.
[46 FR 4056, Jan. 16, 1981; 46 FR 40185, Aug. 7, 1981; 72 FR 7205, Feb. 14, 2007]